Ctesiphon


Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.

Ctesiphon

(tĕs`ĭfŏn', tē`sĭ–), ruined ancient city, 20 mi (32 km) SE of Baghdad, Iraq, on the left bank of the Tigris opposite Seleucia and at the mouth of the Diyala River. After 129 B.C. it was the winter residence of the Parthian kings. Ctesiphon grew rapidly and was of renowned splendor. The Romans captured it in warring against Parthia. It became the capital of the Sassanids in c.224 and a center of Nestorian Christianity. In 637 it was taken and plundered by the Arabs who renamed it, along with Seleucia, al Madain; it was abandoned by them when Baghdad became the capital of the Abbasids. It is now a suburban part of Baghdad. The ruined vault of the great audience hall contains the world's largest single span of brickwork.

Ctesiphon

 

(Greek, Ktesiphon; Arabic, Taysafun or Madain), an ancient city on the banks of the Tigris River (near modern Baghdad in Iraq). From the first century B.C. until the early third century A.D., Ctesiphon was the winter residence of the Arsacids, the kings of Parthia. From the second century A.D. on, it was repeatedly conquered by the Romans. In A.D. 226–227 it became the capital of the Sassanian state and one of the largest and richest cities in the Near East. In the 630’s it was captured and destroyed by the Arabs.

On the eastern bank of the Tigris are the remains of Taq-e Kisra, the Sassanian royal palace (made of glazed brick, dated between the third and fifth centuries), with a gigantic vaulted iwan (throneroom; the arch spans 25.63 m). The facade is decorated with tiers of false arcatures. Excavations have turned up fragments of stucco decoration.

REFERENCES

Pigulevskaia, N. V. Goroda Irana v rannem srednevekov’e. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
Kinzhalov, R. V., and V. G. Lukonin. Pamiatniki kul’tury Sasanidskogo Irana. Leningrad, 1960.
Vseobshchaia istoriia arkhitektury, vol. 1. Moscow, 1970. Pages 314–47.
Reutner, O. Die Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Ktesiphon-Expedition im Winter 1928–1929. [Berlin, 1930.]
References in periodicals archive ?
The end of the retreat from Ctesiphon, however, did not lead to an immediate improvement in Indian morale.
lt;<At the outset, until Philip got a hearing on the question of peace, Ctesiphon and Aristodemus undertook the first iniciation of the imposture, but, when the business was ripe for action, they passed it on to Philocrates and the defendant, who took it over, and completed the enterprise of destruction>>.
At one point he swears to March on Ctesiphon, "reduce it to ruins, and give ever single Sassanid's wife and daughter to the equerries and cameleers to do with them as they please.
The Abbasi caliphs established a new capital in Baghdad, close to Ctesiphon which was the capital of the Sassanian kings (its ruins still stand today some 35 km south of Baghdad).
In Islam's early seventh century the Middle East was divided between two great rival empires, the Bzantium, successor to the Roman Empire with its capitol in Constantinople, and Iran, beginning in the third Century under rule of the Sasanid dynasty, its capital at Ctesiphon, today's Baghdad.
He has been commissioned by the government to reconstruct the statue, a modernist brick monument modeled on the ancient arch of Ctesiphon south of Baghdad, and is working on the preliminary blueprints.
They'd uncovered priceless treasures, hidden architectural features, and historic finds from the ancient civilizations of Nimrud, Nineveh, Hatra, and Ctesiphon.
The Persians captured Syria, Egypt and Palestine between 613 and 619 and, in what must be seen as a calculated move of political warfare, they removed the True Cross of Christ from Jerusalem to their capital in Ctesiphon.
Key terrain included two bridges into Baghdad, the Baghdad-Al Kut Highway, the former Yuwaitha Nuclear Research Facility, and the Arch of Ctesiphon in Salman Pak.
Bird's, A Chapter of Misfortunes: The Battles of Ctesiphon and of Dujailah, and the British Campaign in Mesopotamia, 1915-1916.