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(Cubanos), a nation (natsiia, nation in the historical sense); the principal population of the Republic of Cuba. There are about 8.2 million Cubans (1970, estimate). They speak Spanish distinguished by local characteristics, such as words of West Indian and African derivation and abbreviated variants of Spanish words. Most of the believers are Catholics, but there are also some Protestants and adherents of various Afro-Christian syncretic cults.

From an anthropological point of view, the Cubans are a heterogeneous people, for they include representatives of the Caucasoid and Negroid races, as well as mulattoes. Cubans are descended from Spanish settlers who intermingled with Negro slaves, most of whom were imported from West Africa, between the 16th and 19th centuries. Aboriginal Indians also mixed with these groups in the initial phase of the formation of the Cuban people, but by the mid-16th century they had been almost completely exterminated by the Spanish colonialists. Important stages in the national consolidation of the Cubans were the Thirty Years’ War of National Liberation (1868–98), the Revolution of 1933, and the Popular Revolution of 1959, which later developed into a socialist revolution. The Cubans are becoming a socialist nation (natsiia).

Most of the Cubans are engaged in agriculture (the principal crop is sugarcane). There is some industry. Cuban folk culture —particularly music and dance—combines Spanish and African elements.


Narody Ameriki, vol. 2. Moscow, 1959.
Mokhnachev, M. I. “Stanovlenie sotsialisticheskoi natsii na Kube.” In the collection Natsii Latinskoi Ameriki. Moscow, 1964.
Chain, C. Formatión de la natióon cubana. Havana, 1968.


References in periodicals archive ?
Discussion Series: Famous Cubans throughout history
Customs and Border Patrol figures show that more than 22,000 Cubans arrived at the U.
Havana : A law allowing Cubans to travel abroad without special exit visas took effect on the communist-ruled island yesterday for the first time in half a century.
Analysts say the law likely will mean more Cubans moving out of their homeland, some through third countries such as Spain and Ecuador into the United States.
While many Cubans, devastated by the final phase of the war, which had done extensive damage to the entire island, not just its eastern region, welcomed the entry of the US into the war, they did so with the belief that the latter would ultimately respect Cuban sovereignty.
This is in reference to your story, Conditions improved for Cuban churches, (February).
Nearly every wall of the house is blanketed with one-sheet posters from Garcia's movies and framed photos of family members, Cuban musicians and golf partners.
The strength of the Miami-Dade, Hispanic business sector can be largely attributed to the expatriate Cuban middle class (Gale 1991; Portes and Stepick 1993).
The Cuban government has confirmed that from June, Cubans living abroad will no longer need to apply for a visa to visit the Caribbean island.
At the same time, in part because of the American trade embargo, Cubans die every day for lack of antibiotics and other medicines that are plentiful here, easily obtained if one has health insurance or enough money.
That price allows Cubans to e-mail friends and family abroad, but there is often a two-hour or more wait to get into one of the computer rooms.