Cumans


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Cumans

or

Kumans

(both: ko͞o`mänz), nomadic East Turkic people, identified with the Kipchaks (or the western branch of the Kipchaks) and known in Russian as Polovtsi. Coming from NW Asian Russia, they conquered S Russia and Walachia in the 11th cent., and for almost two centuries warred intermittently with the Byzantine Empire, Hungary, and Kiev. They founded a nomadic state in the steppes along the Black Sea, and were active in commerce with Central Asia and Venice. In the early 12th cent. the main Cuman forces were defeated by the Eastern Slavs. The Mongols decisively defeated the Cumans c.1245. Some were sold as slaves, and many took refuge in Bulgaria and also in Hungary, where they were gradually assimilated into the Hungarian culture. Others joined the khanate of the Golden Horde (also called the Western Kipchaks), which was organized on the former Cuman territory in Russia.
References in periodicals archive ?
Besides the loans stemming from the Ottoman occupation, there are loans from the Cumans and the Pechenegs.
From his 1999 work we learn that after defeat by the Mongols a section of the Alans joined the Cumans and "around 1245 came to Hungary with the second migration of the Cumans, and were settled by Bela IV in what became the Yas province (Jaszag)" (1999: 202).
In Europe, the order acquired properties to support its activities in the Holy Land; but, in 1211, it also adopted a military role defending eastern Hungary against the Cumans.
The other Europe in the Middle Ages; Avars, Bulgars, Khazars, and Cumans.
With internal discord and resistance to the papacy's policies toward Jews, Muslims, and pagan Cumans, all of which Hungary encompassed, Bela found ways to negotiate with the papacy and still not lead the Crusade.
Cumans and Tatars : Oriental Military in the Pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185-1365, by Istvan Vasary.
Until now, the only monograph on Pechenegs and Cumans available in English was Andras Paloczi-Horwith's Pechenegs, Cumans, Iasians, published fifteen years ago.
Vasary's emphasis on the "Oriental military" is misplaced, as he is forced to acknowledge at several points in this book that the Cumans and Tatars involved in Balkan affairs came from the neighbouring steppe north of the Lower Danube and the Black Sea, not from the "Orient.
43) Immigration of Cumans into Hungary, as well as other peoples from the east, had, however, begun much earlier.
44) "The barbarian peoples, especially the Cumans, who, on account of their great numbers in the armies deployed abroad, represented the population of Hungary in the eyes of foreign nations, caused an unending amount of damage to the reputation of the Hungarians.
The book's strength lies in its presentation of each minority group (Jews, Muslims, and Cumans or "pagans") in its own unique situation, each considered according to the sources available.
points out that a very difficult problem was not necessarily in the conversion of Muslims and Cumans but in forcing their conversions.