By the use of the results of this research we can come to this conclusion that the extract of peel and cupule
of oak leaf has antibacterial characteristics and considering this characteristic we can make medicine with natural resources.
Plants produce one-four ovoid or triangular nuts in a two- or four-valved, dehiscent, spiny cupule
(Kaul, 1986, 1988).
Daraki-Chattan: a Palaeolithic cupule
site in India.
Bradley (1991; 1995) and, later, van Hoek (1997) have shown an intimate relationship between cupule
clusters and the larger landscapes of Britain and Ireland.
These include the face motifs, the visual similarity in form between cupules
and dentate impressions in pottery, the use of curvilinear designs, and stylistic traits such as concentricity (Wilson 2002: 210).
Analogous to the way in which the clapping of hands, the stamping of feet, and the sound of rattles assist shamans to cross the threshold between mental states during trance performances, the incessant percussive noise resulting from the striking of rock gongs and from the manufacture of cupules
and pecked engraved images may have had a similarly trance-inducing effect (e.
Recently, several hundred pecked and abraded cupules
were discovered in one of the caves at Padah-lin, the first such ancient stoneworking to be documented in mainland Southeast Asia (Tacon et al.
The tradition of cupules
(cupmarks), one of the first and most durable forms of rock art, originates in this period: in the rock shelter of La Ferrassie (Dordogne), a well-dated block, decorated with a score of cupules
, was associated with a burial.
The engravings are limited in their enigmatic repertoire: most often quite deep cup-marks resembling the cupules
found in so many rock-art regions; circles, singular or concentric; lines, straight, curved or wavy; and then more elaborate figures which combine these primary elements in varied ways.
Carbonized remains from the site core have also yielded some of the earliest securely dated maize cupules
and textile-impressed plaster fragments, probably produced from cotton, in the Maya lowlands (Lawlor et al.
She also suggests that cupules
and other designs may have resulted from increase ceremonies.
About 50 m from the main outcrop and sandstone stacks, it has numerous cup-shaped pits or cupules
, some extending below ground level [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4B OMITTED], several paintings, and a floor area of 24 sq.