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see nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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the cordlike association of nerve tissues that links the brain and nerve ganglia by innervation to the other organs and tissues of the body.

A nerve primarily consists of nerve fibers. In vertebrates many nerves converge to form a bundle that is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath, the perineurium; the thin interstitial layers of connective tissue that separate the individual fibers deep within the bundle constitute the endoneurium. Finally, the entire nerve trunk, comprising several bundles, is covered by an additional sheath, the epineurium.

Nerves can be sensory (also called afferent or centripetal) or motor (also called efferent or centrifugal). Some nerves, for example, those innervating the skeletal muscles, mainly include myelinated, or medullated, fibers; others, for example, the sympathetic nerves, largely consist of unmyelinated, or unmedullated, fibers.

In reptiles, birds, mammals, and man 12 pairs of cranial nerves branch from the brain: the olfactory (cranial nerve I), the optic (cranial nerve II), the oculomotor (cranial nerve III), the trochlear (cranial nerve IV), the trigeminal (cranial nerve V), the abducent (cranial nerve VI), the facial (cranial nerve VII), the acoustic (cranial nerve VIII), the glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX), the vagus (cranial nerve X), the accessory (cranial nerve XI), and the hypoglossal (cranial nerve XII). Only the first ten pairs are present in fish and amphibians.

In man there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves: eight cervical, 12 thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral, and one coccygeal. Each pair innervates the effectors and receptors of a certain part of the body. The spinal nerves branch from the spinal cord into two roots—the posterior, or sensory, and the anterior, or motor. Both roots then combine to form a common trunk that consists of both sensory and motor fibers.

Several adjacent nerves can be combined into nerve plexuses, where an exchange of fibers between different nerves can take place. Three large plexuses are distinguished: the cervical, the brachial, and the lumbosacral. Each nerve plexus is the origin of several pairs of nerves; for example, the sacral portion of the lumbosacral plexus gives rise to the sciatic nerves.

Nerves that originate in the ganglia, trunks, and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system constitute a specific group. The optic nerve is remarkable for its large number of fibers; there are more than 1 million in the human optic nerve. Usually, however, there are 103 -104 fibers in a nerve. In invertebrates certain nerves are known to consist of only a few fibers. The peripheral nervous system in animals and man consists of aggregations of nerves.



A bundle of nerve fibers or processes held together by connective tissue.


Any one of the ribs of a groined vault, but esp. a rib which forms one of the sides of a compartment of the groining.


1. any of the cordlike bundles of fibres that conduct sensory or motor impulses between the brain or spinal cord and another part of the body
2. a large vein in a leaf
3. any of the veins of an insect's wing
References in periodicals archive ?
We present the case of a patient, with a surgically repaired distal biceps tendon rupture performed through a single incision, with injury to both the posterior interosseus and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves.
The differential diagnosis for antecubital region pain includes partial tear of the distal biceps tendon, cubital bursitis, bicipital tendonosis, entrapment of lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve, and posterior interosseous nerve syndrome.
The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve is a proximal branch of the femoral nerve, and it supplies sensation to the lateral thigh.
In our case, it is unlikely that spread occurred to the epidural space, because the signs were unilateral and the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was not involved.
The only neurovascular structure at risk is the posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve.
The posterior branch sends several smaller branches to the teres minor, the deltoid, and the superior lateral brachial cutaneous nerve.
Other sites of donor nerves include the medial and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, intercostal nerves, and the saphenous nerve.
Subsequent work demonstrated that a more proximal blockade, approximately midway between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the patella, may block other nerves known to traverse the adductor (Hunter's) canal in addition to the saphenous nerve, including the posterior branch of the obturator nerve, medial femoral cutaneous nerve, anterior branch of obturator nerve, and the nerve to vastus medialis muscle.
Cutaneous nerve stimulation and motoneuron excitability, I: soleus and tibialis anterior excitability after ipsilateral and contralateral sural nerve stimulation.
Harvesting the flaps with the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve allows neurotization of the flaps; however, we cannot confirm its value as it was only subjectively assessed.
The medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve is a sensory nerve that branches out directly from the medial cord of the brachial plexus and innervates the skin on medial side of the forearm.

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