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any one of numerous organic compounds containing two heterocyclic radicals connected by a chain consisting of an odd number of methine groups:

where Y and Y’ are O, S, Se, CR2, or some other element or radical, R and R’ are H or van alkyl, X is Cl, Br, I, or some other anion, and n = 0–5.

The general name for this class of compounds is derived from the first compound of the class, bright blue cyanin, or cyanine blue (from the Greek kyanos, “blue”). Depending on the number of methine groups in the chain, a distinction is made between simple cyanines (monomethines), in which n = 0, carbocyanines (trimethines), in which n = 1, dicarbocyanines (pentamethines), in which n = 2, and so forth. The basic method for the synthesis of cyanines involves the condensation of quaternary salts of heterocyclic compounds. Cyanines are polymethine dyes.

References in periodicals archive ?
To investigate scanner performance and guide development of an instrument quali fication method, slides with replicates of successive dilutions of cyanine 5 (Cy5) and cyanine 3 (Cy3) dyes (referred to as dye slides) were scanned.
5 [mu]g) was reverse-transcribed into cDNA and labelled with cyanine 3 (Cy3) following the one-color labeling protocol supplied by the manufacturer (Agilent Technologies, Amstelveen, The Netherlands).
The intercalating dye ethidium bromide, which had been used to demonstrate the concept of real-time PCR, was soon replaced with asymmetric cyanine dyes that were less inhibitory to the PCR (6).
In some cases papillae and pore patterns were more easily observed by staining with cyanine blue (Saruwatari et al.
Coralville, IA, USA) with cyanine 5 (Cy5) and Black Hole Quencher-2 dyes at their 5' and 3' ends, respectively (Table 1).
Lapis lazuli, a traditional brilliant blue whose main source is in Afghanistan, can be almost 30 times more expensive than its synthetic counterpart phthalo cyanine.
We demonstrate here the utility of 5' cyanine dye-labeled RNA for mapping the reaction sites of newly isolated ribozymes.
The three dye types typically used in CD-Rs (phthalocyanine, cyanine and azo) were included.
Their most successful creation was a cyanine derivative called EDKC, which, Oseroff found, localized in cultured tumor cells and reacted with light to kill them.
A group of researchers from the CIC nanoGune Consolider, Centro de Fisica de Materiales, and Basque Fondation for Science, Spain, present a hybrid system consisting of cyanine dye J-aggregates and Ag nanoparticles attached to a spherical dielectric microcavity.