Cynoglossum


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Cynoglossum

 

(hound’s-tongue), a genus of plants of the family Boraginaceae. The plants are biennial, perennial, or—less commonly—annual herbs. The leaves are entire and alternate. The flowers, which are mostly purple, red, dark blue, or violet, are in cymose inflorescences known as bostryxes. The calyx is five-partite to the base; it enlarges when fruits are present. The corolla is funnelform or rotate. The fruit consists of four nutlike lobes with hooked prickles.

There are about 60 species, distributed in temperate and subtropical zones and in tropical mountains, mainly in dry regions. The USSR has nine species. The common hound’s-tongue (C. officinale) grows on dry slopes, along river bluffs, and in gravelly areas; it also is encountered as a weed along roads and in wastelands and fields. The plant is poisonous, as are other Cynoglossum species. Its roots and seeds contain alkaloids (cynoglossin, cynoglosseine) and glycoalkaloids. The roots and leaves are used in folk medicine as analgesics, as an agent to treat coughs and convulsions, and as an emollient in the form of a fomentation to treat furunculosis, burns, and snakebites. The juice and the roots are used to control insects and rodents. The species C. amabile is cultivated as an ornamental.

References in periodicals archive ?
sebestena, Cynoglossum amabile, Hackelia mexicana, Heliotropium angiospermum, H.
We studied two populations of Cynoglossum officinale, at Meijendel in the Netherlands and Holkham in England.
The ecology of Cynoglossum officinale in Holkham was studied in 1973-1976 by Boorman and Fuller (1984).
The model was adapted to fit the life history of Cynoglossum officinale.
We elaborated Inequality 3 further to fit the life history of Cynoglossum officinale by including the size-dependent functions for survival and growth from the moment the state is fixed (early winter) to the moment of flowering (spring).
In Meijendel, survival rates for Cynoglossum in the open are lower than in the poplar thickets, and this coincides with lower threshold sizes found in the open sites.
It ranged from 20 to 92%, and in 1973-1975 the Cynoglossum population declined in size.
We conclude that an interplay between (size-independent) survival and (size-dependent) growth rates shapes the life history of Cynoglossum officinale by selection for lower threshold sizes in environments with high mortality and low growth rates.
In the case of Cynoglossum officinale presented here, populations are either declining (Meijendel) or strongly increasing (Holkham), as shown by the results of model A and C, and this may explain why the predictions deviate from observed threshold size values for [R.
The measurement period 1991-1994 shows a decline in overall abundance of Cynoglossum officinale, as confirmed by the models, while in 1996 the species is again on the rise (P.
Population growth, structure, and seed dispersal in the understory herb Cynoglossum virginianum: a population and patch dynamics model.