Fertilization is internal and the transfer of sperm may occur indirectly through spermatophores in representatives of the suborder Cyphophthalmi, or directly by means of a long and fully intromittent male genitalia in the suborders Eupnoi, Dyspnoi, and Laniatores (Machado & Macias-Ordonez 2007).
Most species of the suborders Cyphophthalmi and Eupnoi have a long ovipositor and hide their eggs inside small holes in the soil, trunk crevices, or under stones.
Although the defensive chemistry of Cyphophthalmi, Eupnoi and Laniatores has been studied for some species, that of many important higher taxa (i.
Defensive chemistry of the basal and divergent harvestman suborder Cyphophthalmi (e.
A recent phylogenetic study of Pettalidae Shear, 1980 labeled this family of Cyphophthalmi (Arachnida, Opiliones) a "new model Gondwanan taxon," due to its remarkable distribution on nearly all landmasses of temperate Gondwanan origin (Boyer & Giribet 2007).
lampetides description, which fundamentally changed the understanding of eye evolution in Cyphophthalmi (Sharma & Giribet 2006; see also Boyer & Giribet 2007).
While these scent-gland properties seem to be consistent in Cyphophthalmi and Laniatores, the scent gland features of a large part of Palpatores, namely in some phalangiids and in the Dyspnoi, are quite cryptic.
tricarinatus, ozopores tend to be visible and easily accessible from the outside in most other Opiliones, and are especially conspicuous in Cyphophthalmi (i.
However, the members of the suborder Cyphophthalmi
(mite harvestmen) were thought to be eyeless with the remarkable exception of most Stylocellidae, possessing a pair of laterally positioned eyes in front of the ozophores bearing the opening of the defense glands (Juberthie 1964; Martens 1978; Shear 1993a,b; Giribet & Boyer 2002; Giribet et al.
Among the most enigmatic Cyphophthalmi
are the members of the genus Pettalus, a monophyletic group endemic to Sri Lanka (Boyer et al.
A new species of Cyphophthalmi
(Opiliones) belonging to the Sri Lankan genus Pettalus is described and illustrated.
Nevertheless, its overall morphology with a 4 mm globular body and long, essentially homogeneous legs is wholly inconsistent with Cyphophthalmi
, which are tiny (typically 1-2 mm) with short, stubby legs.