Cyprian Kamil Norwid
Norwid, Cyprian Kamil
Born Sept. 24, 1821, in Las-kowo-Gluchy, near Warsaw; died May 23, 1883, in Paris. Polish writer.
Norwid studied in a Gymnasium and art schools from 1831 to 1840. In 1842 he went abroad, where he became acquainted with A. Mickiewicz, J. Słowacki, F. Chopin, Z. Krasiński, and A. I. Herzen. He traveled extensively and endured great poverty; from 1877 he lived in an asylum. Norwid published very little of his poetry and prose during his lifetime, and many works have been lost. His main themes are the history of civilization, the individual, Christianity and humanitarianism, and the relation of art to life. In his poetry, romantic exuberance and an emotional approach to life were tempered by philosophic generalization, resulting in an ironic perception and evaluation of life’s contradictions. Among his best works are the poetic cycle Vade mecum (1865–66), the philosophical poem A Dorio ad Phrygium (1871), and the tragedies Behind the Scenes (1865–66), Cleopatra (1870–72), and The Society Lady’s Ring (1872).
WORKSDzieła zebrane, vols. 1–2. Warsaw, 1966.
Pisma wszystkie, vols. 1–11. Warsaw, 1970–71.
In Russian translation:
Stikhotvoreniia. Moscow, 1972.
REFERENCESLipatova, A. V. “Ts. K. Norvid.” In Istoriia pol’skoi literatury, vol. 1. Moscow, 1968.
Wyka, K. C. Norvid. Krakow, 1948.
Borowy, W. O Norwidzie. Warsaw, 1960.
Nowe studia o Norwidzie. Warsaw, 1961.
Cyprian Norwid: W 150–lecie urodzin. Warsaw, 1973.
A. V. LIPATOV