Cyrenaica


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Related to Cyrenaica: Cyrene, Tripolitania

Cyrenaica

(sĭrənā`ĭkə, sīrə–), historic region, E Libya, bordering on the Mediterranean Sea. BenghaziBenghazi
or Bengasi
, city (1985 est. pop. 490,500), capital of Benghazi municipality, NE Libya, the main city of Cyrenaica and a port on the Mediterranean Sea. It is primarily an administrative and commercial center.
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, Al Marj, Darnah, and TobrukTobruk
, Arab. Tubruq, city (1984 pop. 75,282), NE Libya, a port on the Mediterranean Sea. It was a fiercely contested objective in World War II (see North Africa, campaigns in). Tobruk was first taken by the British on Jan. 22, 1941.
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 are the chief cities. The Greeks colonized N Cyrenaica in the 7th cent. B.C., founding numerous settlements. In the mid-1st cent. B.C., Cyrenaica became a Roman province. In A.D. 115–16 there was a large-scale but unsuccessful revolt of Jewish settlers. When Rome was divided (4th cent.) into the Eastern and Western empires, Cyrenaica came under the Byzantines, who, however, exercised little control over the region. In 642 Arab armies conquered Cyrenaica and many Arabs settled in the region from the 9th to 11th cent. The Ottoman Turks captured the area in the mid-16th cent. The SanusiSanusi
or Senussi
, Arabic Sanusiyya, a political-religious organization in Libya and Sudan founded in Mecca in 1837 by Muhammad bin Ali al-Sanusi (1791–1859), known as the Grand Sanusi.
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 Muslim brotherhood was founded (1843) in Cyrenaica and gained many adherents there. For the history of Cyrenaica after the Ottoman conquest, see LibyaLibya
, republic (2005 est. pop. 5,766,000), 679,358 sq mi (1,759,540 sq km), N Africa. It borders on Algeria in the west, on Tunisia in the northwest, on the Mediterranean Sea in the north, on Egypt in the east, on Sudan in the southeast, and on Chad and Niger in the south.
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.

Cyrenaica

 

a historic region in Libya. In the seventh century B.C., Greek cities were founded along the coast of Cyrenaica, the largest being Cyrene. From the sixth to the fourth century B.C. the region was part of the Achaemenid Empire. It was later incorporated into the empire of Alexander the Great. After Alexander’s death, Cyrenaica was under the rule of the Ptolemies. In the first century B.C., it became a Roman province; it subsequently was under Byzantine rule. In A.D. 640–650, Cyrenaica was conquered by the Arabs, and in the 16th century it fell to the Turks.

After the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–12, the Italians occupied part of Cyrenaica; they annexed the remainder of the territory in 1928. The region, together with Tripolitania and Fezzan, later formed the Italian colony of Libya. At the end of World War II (1939–45), Cyrenaica was occupied by British forces, who established a large military base there; the base was closed after the revolutionary coup in Libya in 1969. From 1951 (December) to 1963, Cyrenaica was one of the three provinces of Libya. With the introduction of new administrative divisions, the region ceased to exist as an independent unit and was divided into the muhafazat (governorships) of Benghazi, Darnah, and Al Jabal al Akhdar.

References in periodicals archive ?
Backers of a federal Libya say they are acting on the basis of the 1951 constitution which divided the country into three administrative regions: Tripolitania in the west, Cyrenaica in the east and Fezzan in the south.
Much of the eastern half of the country, Cyrenaica, has been under the control of a coalition of tribal militias led by Ibrahim Jathran since last year.
The rebels are made up of former oil security forces which defected with their leader Ibrahim Jathran, a former Gaddafi fighter, in the summer and took over the oil terminals to claim more autonomy for their self-declared Cyrenaica region.
They will be divided equally between Libya's three regions: Tripolitania in the west, Cyrenaica in the east, and Fezzan in the south.
The 60-seat assembly will be divided into 20 seats for each of the country's three historic regions: the central-western Tripolitania, the eastern Cyrenaica and the southern Fezzan.
The eastern half of the country, Cyrenaica, with 80pc of the oil, is now in practice a separate entity, run by militias that demand "federalism" but really mean independence.
Libya then was divided into three states, with Cyrenaica - or Barqa as it was called in Arabic - encompassing the Eastern half of the country.
His challenge is clearest in the east, where protesters claiming to protect Libya's oil from corrupt elites have closed ports, dug in and threatened to sell oil independently for their Cyrenaica region, long an anti-Gaddafi stronghold.
Hostility between Libya's three main regions - Tripolitania, Cyrenaica and Fezzan - is threatening to spill into anarchy and conflict.
Libya is divided into 22 Districts (Baladiyats) and Kufra, in the south of the former Province of Cyrenaica, is about twice the size of the UK with roughly 60,000 people.
Even when the province of Cyrenaica announced self-rule, Egypt made no move, though this step might lead to a civil war and a division in its western neighbour, especially as oil-rich Cyrenaica is in eastern Libya, near the Egyptian border.