Cyrene


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Cyrene

(sīrē`nē), ancient city near the northern coast of Africa, in CyrenaicaCyrenaica
, historic region, E Libya, bordering on the Mediterranean Sea. Benghazi, Al Marj, Darnah, and Tobruk are the chief cities. The Greeks colonized N Cyrenaica in the 7th cent. B.C., founding numerous settlements. In the mid-1st cent. B.C.
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 (now E Libya). It was a Greek colony founded (c.630 B.C.) by Aristoteles of Thera, who became king of Cyrene as Battus. For eight generations the monarchs were alternately named Battus and Arcesilas. Having important commerce with Greece, the little city-state flourished. Other cities were founded in Cyrenaica, notably Barca, but Cyrene retained power. In the late 6th cent. Cyrene submitted to the Persians under Cambyses II (see under CambysesCambyses
, two kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia. Cambyses I was king (c.600 B.C.) of Ansham, ruling as a vassal of Media. According to Herodotus he married the daughter of the Median king Astyages; some scholars dispute this. Cambyses' son was Cyrus the Great.
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), but later (after 480 B.C.) became independent again. Although the city became subject to Alexander the Great in 331 and was later practically annexed by the Ptolemies of Egypt, it seems to have had nominal independence until the marriage of BereniceBerenice,
c.273–21 B.C., queen of ancient Cyrene and Egypt. She was the daughter and successor of King Magas of Cyrene. In 247 B.C. she married Ptolemy III, thereby effectively annexing Cyrene to Egypt.
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 (d. 221), daughter of Cyrene's king, to Ptolemy IIIPtolemy III
(Ptolemy Euergetes) , d. 221 B.C., king of ancient Egypt (246–221 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty, son of Ptolemy II and the first Arsinoë. He plunged immediately into a war with Syria, where his sister, Berenice, was trying to secure the throne for her
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. Cyrene remained part of the Ptolemaic kingdom until 96 B.C. It was later the center of a Roman province. Under the Roman emperor Trajan there were Jewish uprisings, which were severely punished, and Cyrene declined. At its prime Cyrene was a large and beautiful city and an intellectual center noted for its schools of medicine and philosophy. AristippusAristippus
, c.435–c.360 B.C., Greek philosopher of Cyrene, first of the Cyrenaics. He held pleasure to be the highest good and virtue to be identical with the ability to enjoy.
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, CallimachusCallimachus,
fl. c.280–45 B.C., Hellenistic Greek poet and critic, b. Cyrene. Educated at Athens, he taught before obtaining work in the Alexandrian library. There he drew up a catalog, with such copious notes that it constituted a full literary history.
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, EratosthenesEratosthenes
, c.275–c.195 B.C., Greek scholar, b. Cyrene. A pupil of Callimachus in Athens, he became (c.240 B.C.) head of the library at Alexandria. Known for his versatility, he wrote poetry and works (most of them lost) on literature, the theater (notably on ancient
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, and Synesius were born here. Extensive ruins include the temple of Apollo (dating from the 7th cent. B.C.), the agora, the capitol, the acropolis, and the theater.

Cyrene

 

(now Shahhat, Libya), an ancient city 15 km from the Mediterranean coast, chief center of Cyrenaica. It was founded circa 630 B.C. by Greek settlers from the island of Thera; later its population became mixed Greek and Libyan. Until 460 it was ruled by the royal dynasty of the Battiadae, whereupon a slave-holding democracy was established. Circa 331 the city was conquered by Alexander the Great, and in 322 it became part of the empire of the Ptolemies. Beginning in 96 B.C. it was under Roman rule.

Cyrene was one of the major commercial and cultural centers of the classical world. It was important for the export of the Cyrenaican vases, grain, wine, fruits, and especially silphium, a medicinal plant. During the fourth and fifth centuries A.D., however, the city began to decline in importance, and in the seventh century it was destroyed by the Arabs.

Excavations conducted in the 20th century have revealed the remains of several ancient structures, including the complexes of the acropolis, the capitolium, the Caesareum, and agora; the temples of Apollo (late seventh century B.C., rebuilt in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., second century A.D., and later), Artemis (sixth century B.C.), and Olympian Zeus; large and small thermae (first and second centuries A.D.); and a theater. Outside the city walls is a Christian basilica of the Byzantine era. Also discovered were ceramic items and stone sculptures. There is an archaeological museum.

REFERENCES

Oliverio, G. Scavi di drene. Bergamo, 1931.
Chamoux, F. Cyrène sous la monarchie des Battiades. Paris, 1954.
Goodchild, R. G. Cyrene and Apollonia. [No place] 1959.

Cyrene

an ancient Greek city of N Africa, near the coast of Cyrenaica: famous for its medical school
References in periodicals archive ?
Cyrene became one of the greatest intellectual/artistic centres of the Greek world, famous for its medical school, academies and architecture.
The project aims to conduct research activities in Libya, Cyprus and the Middle East to acquire historical-archaeological data on the strong interrelations between Cyrene, Alexandria and Cyprus that existed in the Hellenistic age and beyond.
Simon of Cyrene and the Legend of the Easter Egg is a children's picturebook about Simon of Cyrene, a figure in the New Testament who helped Jesus Christ carry his cross, and whose life changed forever after he met Jesus face-to-face.
They cover how Mark survived, Simon of Cyrene in the Markan passion narrative, echoes of exorcism in Markan and Matthean baptist traditions, Roman law and the burial of Jesus in Mark 15:46, continuity and discontinuity in the newness of the Gospel in Mark and Matthew, emotions of protest in Mark 11-13: responding to an affective turn in social-scientific discourse, the spirituality of faith in the Gospel of Matthew, Matthew as a Jewish Gospel for Jews and Gentiles, and the apocalyptic Jewish Jesus and contemporary interpretation.
Joining the three partners are Lauren Waldrip, director of client services; Jillian Hicks, director of public affairs; and Cyrene Quiamco, director of social media.
Since Khuzam was a gifted essayist, I was also helped along by his penultimate collection of essays, L'ospitalita intellettuale / Intellectual Hospitality (Morcelliana, 2012) -- a title inspired by Louis Massignon's statement that "one shouldn't annex the other, but rather become his guest" -- which treats the reader to wonderfully eclectic pieces on Synesius of Cyrene, Al-Ghazali, Fontaine, Flaubert and Mann, among many others.
In Division C, Cyrene 3 (Michael Selby) capped off a solid series with four individual race wins to take out the pointscore with Quetzalcoatl (Anthony Bruce, James Lee Warner and Antony Sweetapple) claiming second on count-back over Online (Stephen Trevillion).
Pivotal figures such as Abraham, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Rahab, David, Jeremiah, Joseph and Mary, Simon of Cyrene, Paul, Priscilla and Aquila, and Peter stand out as examples of cross-cultural displacement, each encountering a new language and painful maturing.
It is still not known how this heart shape came to represent love and affection but one theory suggests that during the 7th century BC, the silphium plant (now thought to be extinct) was used as a form of birth control in the city state of Cyrene.
In the following article, Criscuolo adopts an unorthodox interpretation of the wills of Ptolemy VIII, arguing that Rome fabricated them to justify its annexation of Cyrene in 74 B.
One of the earliest philosophers to do so was Aristippus of Cyrene (435-356BC) who spent his life in Athens and was a disciple of Socrates.
I mention that I'd travelled some 200 km from Benghazi to the extensive Greco-Roman site at Cyrene, only a small part of Libya's remarkable archaeological wealth.