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examination of the urinary bladder by means of a special instrument—a cystoscope—consisting of an optical system within a hollow metal housing. The cystoscope is inserted into the urinary bladder through the urethra. For purposes of diagnosis, the bladder is irrigated through the hollow housing of the cystoscope and filled with a transparent disinfecting fluid. The cystoscope is useful in diagnosing such urological diseases as chronic cystitis, tuberculosis, calculi, and tumors in the bladder, as well as inflammations and tumors in the adjacent organs—the uterus and vagina in women and the prostate and rectum in men. Specially designed cystoscopes are used to catheterize the ureters and renal pelves, to perform a biopsy, and for certain types of surgical intervention in the urinary tract and prostate (for example, crushing the calculi in the bladder).
REFERENCESFrumkin, A. P. Tsistoskopicheskii atlas. Moscow, 1954.
Pytel’, A. Ia., and N. A. Lopatkin. Urologiia. Moscow, 1970.
A. L. SHABAD