James Dewey Watson

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Watson, James Dewey,

1928–, American biologist and educator, b. Chicago, Ill., grad. Univ. of Chicago, 1947, Ph.D. Univ. of Indiana, 1950. With F. H. C. CrickCrick, Francis Harry Compton,
1916–2004, English scientist, grad. University College, London, and Caius College, Cambridge. Crick was trained as a physicist, and from 1940 to 1947 he served as a scientist in the admiralty, where he designed circuitry for naval mines.
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 he began (1951) research on the molecular structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) at the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge. Their findings, published in 1953, resulted in the joint award to them and to M. H. F. WilkinsWilkins, Maurice Hugh Frederick,
1916–2004, British biophysicist, b. New Zealand, Ph.D. Univ. of Birmingham, 1940. He conducted research at the Univ. of St. Andrews, Scotland, and at Kings College, the Univ. of London (from 1946 until his death). In Berkeley, Calif.
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 (on whose laboratory's in X-ray diffraction their studies were partly based) of the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Watson joined the faculty at Harvard in 1955 and in 1968 became director of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York. From 1989 to 1992 he was director of the National Center for Human Genome Research, which undertook the Human Genome ProjectHuman Genome Project,
international scientific effort to map all of the genes on the 23 pairs of human chromosomes and, to sequence the 3.1 billion DNA base pairs that make up the chromosomes (see nucleic acid).
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. His chief researches have been in the fields of genetics, bacteriophage reproduction, and cancer. Remarks in a published interview in 2007 that persons of African descent were inherently less intelligent than Europeans led to his suspension and subsequent retirement as Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory director.

Bibliography

See his The Double Helix (1968), The DNA Story (1981, with J. Tooze), Genes, Girls, and Gamow: After the Double Helix (2002), and Avoid Boring People: Lessons from a Life in Science (2007); biography by V. K. McElheny, Watson and DNA: Making a Scientific Revolution (2003); H. F. Judson, The Eighth Day of Creation (expanded ed. 1996).

Watson, James Dewey

 

Born Apr. 6, 1928, in Chicago. American biochemist; specialist in molecular biology. Member of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (1962), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1957), and the Danish Royal Academy of Sciences (1962).

Watson graduated from the University of Chicago in 1947. He did postdoctoral research at the University of Copenhagen in 1950 and 1951 and at the Cavendish Laboratory of Cambridge University from 1951 to 1953 and from 1955 to 1956; he was a senior research fellow at the California Institute of Technology from 1953 to 1955. Watson began teaching biology at Harvard University in 1956, becoming a professor in 1961. In 1961 he became a science adviser to the president of the United States. In 1968 he became director of the laboratory of quantitative biology in Cold Spring Harbor in New York.

Watson’s main work deals with the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and the role of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the biosynthesis of protein. In 1953, together with F. H. C. Crick, Watson proposed a model for the spatial structure of DNA (the double helix); the model made it possible to explain how genetic information is coded in the DNA molecule and to advance the hypothesis of the mechanism of the molecule’s self-reproduction (replication). This work was the foundation of the new field of molecular genetics. Watson and Crick also proposed the hypothesis of semiconservative replication. Watson is also known for his work on the structure of viruses and on the role of viruses in the growth of malignant tissue. Watson was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1962 (together with Crick and M. H. F. Wilkins).

WORKS

In Russian translation:
Molekuliarnaia biologiia gena. Moscow, 1978.
Dvoinaia spiral’. Moscow, 1969.

IA. A. PARNES

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A SNP is a change to a single chemical base along the DNA helix.
MGB is a crescent-shaped molecule that binds tightly to the minor groove of a DNA helix, allowing use of shorter probes with improved hybridization performance.
By comparison, an average DNA helix is 20 angstroms across.
The compound [Fe2L3]4+ is an iron triple helicate with three organic strands wrapped around two iron centres to give a helix which looks cylindrical in shape and neatly fits within the major groove of a DNA helix.
The scientists have discovered molecules that bind specifically to mixed (AT/CG) DNA sequences in the minor groove of the double stranded DNA helix.
The scientists speculate that the DNA helix, coiled like a spring, wraps around the histone octamer and holds the three sections together.