Genetic Information

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Genetic Information

 

information about the composition, structure, and nature of the exchange of substances constituting the organism (chiefly proteins and nucleic acids) and related functions that is contained in the hereditary structures of organisms (in the chromosomes, cytoplasm, cell organelles) and that is obtained from ancestors in the form of genes. In multicellular organisms with sexual reproduction, genetic information is transmitted from generation to generation through the sex cells or gametes, whose only function is to transmit and store genetic information. Microorganisms and viruses have special types of transmission of genetic information (such as transduction and transformation). Genetic information is contained chiefly in the chromosomes, where it is coded in a definite linear sequence of nucleotides in molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genetic information is realized in the course of ontogeny—development of the individual—by the transmission of genetic information from gene to character. All cells arise as a result of the division of a single original cell, the zygote, and therefore have the same set of genes and potentially the same genetic information. The specificity of the cells of different tissues is due to the fact that different genes are active in them, that is, all the genetic information is not realized, only the part required for the particular tissue to function.

IU. S. DEMIN

References in periodicals archive ?
But the explosion of DNA sequencing projects, and the availability of DNA sequence data for multiple isolates representing most key foodborne pathogens, has primed efforts to develop highly discriminatory and high-throughput DNA sequence-based subtyping techniques.
The arrangement of these four bases determines the exact function and coding capacity of the DNA sequence and helps in distinguishing between individuals.
Formally, epigenetics constitutes the study of changes in gene expression not accompanied by alterations in DNA sequence.
Duke University (Durham, NC) has patented a transformed yeast cell containing a first heterologous DNA sequence which codes for a mammalian G protean coupled receptor and a second heterologous DNA sequence which codes for a mammalian G protein .
pylori strain from the family and from patients living in different geographic regions had its own, unique DNA sequence (15,22).
As Stemmer explained to London's Independent, "This back-translated DNA sequence itself would not be covered by copyright.
One DNA sequence is used to immobilize the mec A gene which is simultaneously hybridizing to detect DNA sequences in solution.
By filling in all the gaps between the milestones, the full DNA sequence of the X chromosome can be determined, giving a complete description of the human genetic blueprint in at least one of the 24 chromosomes that make up the human genome.
Moreover, they will reveal long-range DNA sequence information not accessible with current sequencing technologies.
For example, the resequencing of genomes (determination of the DNA sequence for many individuals of a species after a reference sequence for that species has been determined), such as might be used for medical diagnostic purposes, could be achieved by aligning individual reads on the reference sequence.
The tested DNA sequence was >99% identical with a published SARS-CoV sequence.
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