Dagestan Republic

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Related to Dagestan: Chechnya, Ingushetia

Dagestan Republic


Daghestan Republic

(dägəstän`), constituent republic (1999 pop. 2,074,000), c.19,400 sq mi (50,250 sq km), SE European Russia, bounded on the E by the Caspian Sea. MakhachkalaMakhachkala
, city (1989 pop. 317,000), capital of Dagestan Republic, SE European Russia, a port on the Caspian Sea. It is an important commercial and industrial center with oil refineries that are linked by pipeline with the Grozny fields.
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 (the capital) and DerbentDerbent
, city (1989 pop. 78,000), SE European Russia, in Dagestan, on the Caspian Sea. It stands on a narrow strip of land that forms a natural pass (the Caspian, or Iron, Gates) between the Caucasian foothills and the sea. Orchards and vineyards are cultivated.
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 are the chief cities. Dagestan in the south consists mainly of sections of the Caucasus Mts. Except for the Caspian plain and the Nogai steppe and the irrigated lowlands in the north, the terrain is one of steep slopes and narrow valleys. Difficulty of access has left most of Dagestan's mineral resources untapped; however, important quantities of oil and natural gas have been extracted along the coast. The irrigated lowlands support winter wheat, corn, sunflowers, fruits, and wine grapes. The republic's major industries produce canned fruit, wine, oil, machines, chemicals, textiles, and wood products. However, by the end of the 20th cent. over 85% of its budget was provided by the Russian government. The Samur, Sulak, and other rivers provide hydroelectric power. Dagestan's terrain has encouraged the development of a multiplicity of ethnic groups, more than 30 in number, most of whom are Muslim. About half the population consists of indigenous Caucasian mountain peoples (Avars, Lezghians, Darghins, Lakhs); the rest is made up of Turkic (notably Kumyks) and Iranian groups (especially Tats) and, in the cities, Russians and Ukrainians.

An ancient area of human settlement, Dagestan belonged to Caucasian Albania in the 1st millennium B.C. It was later invaded by Huns, Persian Sassanids, and, in the 7th cent. A.D., by Arabs, who introduced Islam. Taken by the Turks in the 11th cent. and the Mongols in the 13th cent., the region became the center of a struggle between Turkey and Persia in the 15th cent. It was a Persian province when Russia annexed it by the Treaty of Gulistan in 1813. Muslim mountain dwellers resisted Russian domination until 1859, and a new revolt erupted in 1877, during the Russo-Turkish war of that year. Dagestan came under Soviet rule in 1920 and in 1921 was made an autonomous republic.

In 1991, the parliament of Dagestan declared the republic to be of full republic status. Dagestan was a signatory to the Mar. 31, 1992, treaty of federation that created the Russian Federation (see RussiaRussia,
officially the Russian Federation,
Rus. Rossiya, republic (2005 est. pop. 143,420,000), 6,591,100 sq mi (17,070,949 sq km). The country is bounded by Norway and Finland in the northwest; by Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, and Ukraine in the west; by Georgia
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). In 1999 several thousand armed members of a Chechen Muslim fundamentalist group, whose aim was to merge Dagestan with neighboring ChechnyaChechnya
or Chechen Republic
, republic (1990 est. pop. 1,300,000, with neighboring Ingushetia), c.6,100 sq mi (15,800 sq km), SE European Russia, in the N Caucasus. Grozny is the capital. Prior to 1992 Chechnya and Ingushetia comprised the Checheno-Ingush Republic.
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 in a single Islamic state, invaded S Dagestan from Chechnya. Russia responded with ground and air attacks by federal troops, and the militants retreated; the incident contributed to Russia's decision to invade Chechnya later in 1999. The subsequent fighting in Chechnya at times spilled over into Dagestan; Dagestan also has experienced violence involving local Islamic militants.

Dagestan Republic

a constituent republic of S Russia, on the Caspian Sea: annexed from Persia in 1813; rich mineral resources. Capital: Makhachkala. Pop.: 2 584 200 (2002). Area: 50 278 sq. km (19 416 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
Lawyers in Dagestan Receive Death Threat, AMNESTY INT'L
US investigators have been working with the Russians to try to determine whether Tamerlan Tsarnaev had established any contacts with the militants operating in Dagestan.
The Dagestan president extended an invitation to His Majesty to visit the Republic of Dagestan.
Although the Chechen conflict has died down significantly in recent years, violence is reported almost daily in Dagestan.
The Nogai region is in northern Dagestan, close to Stavropol.
Ever since, thousands of Muslim pilgrims flocked the boy's home in Kizlyar, a small town in the Dagestan republic, near the border of war- ravaged Chechnya.
He added the plane had taken off from Vnukovo Airport, and was en route to Makhachkala, the capital of Russia's Dagestan.
Investigators examine the wreckage of a Tupolev Tu-154 jet belonging to Dagestan Airlines after a crash killed two at Moscow Domodedovo airport yesterday
A senior Russian security officer has been killed along with eight anti-government fighters in the province of Dagestan, officials say.
Vagabov himself was killed in a shootout with security forces in Dagestan last week, authorities said.
Dagestan will also shift to RAB, but only from 1 Jan 2014.
Summary: Russian security forces said on Monday they had killed an al-Qaeda agent and a second rebel fighter in its troubled North Caucasus region of Dagestan.