Dalmatia

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Dalmatia

(dălmā`shə), Croatian Dalmacija, historic region of Croatia, extending along the Adriatic Sea, approximately from Rijeka (Fiume) to the Gulf of Kotor. SplitSplit
, Ital. Spalato, city (2011 pop. 178,102), S Croatia, on the Dalmatian coast of the Adriatic Sea. It is a major seaport, a regional transportation hub, and a leading commercial center.
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 is the provincial capital; other cities include ZadarZadar
, Ital. Zara, city (2011 pop. 75,062), W Croatia, on the Dalmatian coast of the Adriatic Sea. A seaport and a tourist center, it has industries that produce liqueur, processed fish, textiles, and cigarettes.
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 (the historic capital), ŠibenikŠibenik
, Ital. Sebenico, town (2011 pop. 46,332), S Croatia, on the Adriatic Sea. It is a seaport, naval base, and resort center on the Dalmatian coast. The city has shipbuilding, metalworking, and aluminum industries. Founded in the 10th cent.
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, and DubrovnikDubrovnik
, Ital. Ragusa, city (2011 pop. 42,615), in extreme S Croatia, on a promontory of the Dalmatian coast in the Adriatic Sea. It is a port and tourist and cultural center, with some light industries. Dubrovnik was founded as Ragusium in the 7th cent.
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. Except for a coastal lowland, Dalmatia is generally mountainous, rising to the Dinaric Alps. The coast, which is famed for its scenic beauty and its resorts, has many bays and excellent harbors protected by a chain of islands. Although Dalmatian rivers are mostly unnavigable, they supply a substantial portion of Croatia's hydroelectricity. Agriculture, fishing, and tourism are the principal economic activities. There is also industry and mining in the region. The bulk of the population consists of Roman Catholic Croats; there are also Eastern Orthodox Serbs and some Italians (mainly at Zadar and nearby cities).

Long in conflict with Rome, Dalmatia was definitively subdued by Augustus (35 B.C.–33 B.C.) and was incorporated with part of Illyria as a Roman province. It was overrun by the Ostrogoths (5th cent. A.D.), reconquered by the Byzantine Empire (6th cent.), and settled, except in the coastal cities, by the Slavs in the 7th cent. By the 10th cent. it was divided between the kingdoms of Croatia (north) and Serbia (south), while Venice held several ports and islands.

After several centuries of struggle, chiefly between Venice and the crowns of Hungary and Croatia, the coastal islands and most of Dalmatia, except Dubrovnik, were under Venetian control by 1420. Hungary retained the Croatian part, which in 1526 passed to the Turks but was recovered by the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699). The Treaty of Campo Formio (1797) gave Venetian Dalmatia to Austria, and the Treaty of Pressburg (1805) gave it to France. It was first attached to Napoleon's Italian kingdom but in 1809 was incorporated into the Illyrian provs. (see IllyriaIllyria and Illyricum
, ancient region of the Balkan Peninsula. In prehistoric times a group of tribes speaking dialects of an Indo-European language swept down to the northern and eastern shores of the Adriatic and
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). The Congress of Vienna restored (1815) it to Austria, where it was made (1861) a crown land, with its capital at Zadar.

By the secret Treaty of London (1915) the Allies promised Dalmatia to Italy in return for Italian support in World War I. In Dec., 1918, it became part of the newly established kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (after 1929 Yugoslavia), but Italy continued to claim Dalmatia. The Treaty of Rapallo (1920) gave Dalmatia to Yugoslavia, except for Zadar and several islands, which subsequently passed to Italy. During World War II, Italy held most of Dalmatia, and after the war it was returned to Yugoslavia. The Italian peace treaty of 1947 gave Yugoslavia the islands that had been ceded to Italy after World War I. Following Croatia's secession from Yugoslavia in 1991, fighting broke out between Croats and Serbs. Many of the port cities in SE Dalmatia were heavily shelled as the Serbs, backed by Yugoslavian federal forces, unsuccessfully attempted to detach that region from Croatia.

Dalmatia

 

(Dalmacija). a historical region in Yugoslavia, on the territory of the present-day socialist republics of Croatia and Montenegro.

The concept of “Dalmatia” changed over the course of centuries. In ancient times it was populated by Illyrian tribes, including the Dalmatae (hence the name) and Liburnians. In the first century A.D. it became a Roman province, and in the sixth century it came under the rule of Byzantium. In the sixth and seventh centuries, Dalmatia was captured by the Croats and Serbs (in the south). In the ninth century the Dalmatian cities became part of the Croatian state, and in the beginning of the 12th century they were taken over by Hungary. From 1420 to 1797, Dalmatia, except for Dubrovnik. was ruled by Venice. In the 16th century the interior regions of Dalmatia were captured by the Turks. According to the Treaty of Campo Formio (1797). Dalmatia was transferred to Austria and was under her rule until 1918 (except for the period 1805–13, when it was ceded to France and was part of the Illyrian Provinces). After the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918, Dalmatia, except Zadar (which, in addition to several islands, was captured by Italy), became part of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (since 1929, Yugoslavia). After the breakup of Yugoslavia by the fascist aggressors (1941), Dalmatia was included as part of the Croatian puppet government. Toward the end of 1944 it was liberated from the occupiers by the People’s Liberation Army of Yugoslavia. In 1945, Dalmatia became part of Croatia. The southern part of Dalmatia has been part of Montenegro since 1945.

REFERENCES

Novak, G. Prošlost Dalmacije,[vols.] 1–2. Zagreb, 1944.

A. E. MOSKALENKO

Dalmatia

a region of W Croatia along the Adriatic: mountainous, with many offshore islands
References in periodicals archive ?
Si propone dunque una Dalmazia come provincia autonoma, parte integrante dell'Austria, nella quale tuttavia valorizzare e difendere specificita (per esempio il bilinguismo slavo-italiano) che la distinguono dalle aree circostanti.
Lo studioso sottolinea i cambiamenti che si verificano in seno al movimento nel corso del tempo: se negli anni Novanta esso tende alla croatizzazione forzata che deve passare per la scuola attraverso l'imposizione dello studio della lingua croata e alla relativa negazione dei diritti agli italiani e agli italofili dell'area, nei primi anni del secolo, il movimento croato e serbo si prefigge di attrarre gli italiani della Dalmazia e quelli del Regno d'Italia in un orizzonte comune di opposione allimpero Austro-Ungarico.
Following the introduction by Charles Dempsey (5-12), this volume contains: Kruno Prijatelj, "La pittura in Dalmazia nel Quattrocento e i suoi legami coll'altra sponda" (1328); Reinhold C.