include primary schools, secondary schools and universities, hospitals, healthcare organisations, research organisations, and organisations in culture, art and mass media.
Together, household registration and danwei
created something approaching a modern form of serfdom.
Lin Zhongliang 2004 Geji danwei
zheng[awei de zhineng ji hongguan zhengfa gongzuo (The Functions and Macroscopic Tasks of the Politico-Legal Affairs Work of Politico-Legal Affairs Committees at All Levels of Government).
These factors explain why the danwei
is such a unique and important institution and why the subject has interested many a sociologist, anthropologist and policy scientist.
Employees working in the many danwei
were encouraged to purchase their current housing, which was offered to them at a fraction (perhaps 10%) of a theoretical market value (Zhang, 2001).
Chinese people must apply for a passport through their danwei
(work unit) or local village officials.
In addition, it has been noticed that individuals are increasingly shaping their own identities less in terms of their family or danwei
but more in terms of their broad strata of the society, such as workers, migrants, students, and intellectuals (Pye, 1991: pp.
In advance of the conference, SPRIE polled the high school students with the assistance of Beijing-based Danwei
monopolised the provision of education and health services, allocation of living space, the maintenance of social order and even the arbitration of family disputes, among others.
According to Fengqiao and Yuan, (26) the concept of danwei
(a small business) plays a key role in understanding institutions of higher learning.
Zhang Lei, Yigan Qishi Jujue Luren: Danwei
Bei Pan Daoxian jia Peichang [Employment Discrimination Refutes Applicant: Work Unit Must Apologize, Pay Compensation], BEIJING RIBAO, May 23, 2008, http://www.
In the old system the social security was guaranteed by the employer through the danwei
(unit) workplace organization (Yang & Szell 2009).