The same low central vowel contrast is represented variously by a / a (for Hindi, Urdu, Magahi, Bhojpuri, Marathi, Kashmiri, several Dardic languages
, and of course Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit), a / [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (for Maithili, Panjabi, Nepali, Gujarati, Sindhi, Sinhala), and in the Eastern languages (where the second of these vowels--the so-called "inherent vowel"--takes on a back rounded quality) by a / [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ~ [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for Assamese, a / [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for Oriya, but again by a / a for Bangla.
Buddruss with Muhammad Amin Zia; Radloff and Shakil (1998) and Radloff (1999) on Gilgit Shina; Liljegren (2008) on Palula; earlier detailed treatments of Kohistani Shina by Schmidt (2001, 2004, 2006); joint efforts by Schmidt and Kohistani (1995, 1998, 2001) and by Schmidt and Zarin (1981); and work on eastern Shina by Hook (1990, 1996, 1997), it is making Shina one of the better-studied of the Dardic languages.
Since relative clauses in some Dardic languages, for example Khowar and Kalasha, are constructed with k- (interrogative) forms, this Kohistani Shina relative clause with joo 'what' raises the question of whether it is a variant of the k- word strategy, an influence from those I-A languages employing an inherited j- (relative) word strategy, or both.
Those linguists who work on the Dardic languages will already have acquired the book for themselves or for their institutional libraries.
Other Nuristani and Dardic languages have *s-/c-: Kati cu, cuyu 'sand', Waigali so, Khowar sugur, Kalasha gugou and gigol-.
16) Only in Dardic languages has this lemma semantically split into 'cold' and 'fever', compare Gawar-Bati sal 'fever' but sala, solo 'cold', Savi sal 'fever' but salo 'cold'.