Darfur


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Darfur

(där`fo͞or), region and former sultanate, W Sudan. The region is mountainous, dominated by the central massif of Jebel Marra, which rises to 10,130 ft (3,088 m). Much of the terrain is dry plateau, and there are sand dunes in the extreme north. The region is divided into the states of Northern, Western, Central, Eastern, and Southern Darfur. The Fur (for whom the area is named) and the Baggara are the major ethnic groups. Darfur's economy is based on subsistence agriculture. Cattle, sheep, and goats are raised in the north.

The rulers of CushCush
or Kush
. 1 Son of Ham and father of the Asian nation of the same name, perhaps the same nation as one of similar name in E Mesopotamia. Gen. 10.8; 1 Chron. 1.10. 2 Benjamite opposed to David. Ps. 7, title.
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, which fell c.A.D. 350, may have established a dynasty in Darfur. Christian kingdoms emerged in the period between 900 and 1200, but they were destroyed by Muslim incursions from KanemKanem
, former empire in Africa in the areas near Lake Chad that are now part of Chad and N Nigeria. The empire began in the 9th cent., when the Sefawa migrated to the area from the Sahara. The rulers eventually embraced Islam and extended their control to neighboring Bornu.
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 in the mid-13th cent. Fur, a major kingdom probably founded in the 15th cent., pushed aside the Kanem rulers in the 17th cent. Fur was conquered by the Egyptians in 1874 and by the Mahdists (see MahdiMahdi
[Arab.,=he who is divinely guided], in Sunni Islam, the restorer of the faith. He will appear at the end of time to restore justice on earth and establish universal Islam. The Mahdi will be preceded by al-Dajjal, a Muslim antichrist, who will be slain by Jesus.
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) of Sudan in 1883. With the fall of the Mahdist state in 1898, Darfur became a semiautonomous sultanate under Anglo-Egyptian suzerainty. The sultan attempted to expel the foreign colonizers during World War I, but his forces were defeated by the British in 1916, and Darfur was incorporated into Sudan.

Since 2003 the region has been scene of fighting, with Sudanese government forces and their allied Arab militias (the janjaweed) battling non-Arab rebels originally linked to an opposition party, but the conflict has gradually widened to include fighting between allied groups on both sides, as both rebels and militias have splintered. Warfare also has spilled over into Chad, and Chadian rebels have based themselves in parts of Darfur. An African Union (AU) peacekeeping force was established in the region beginning in Aug., 2004; the force, which officially became a joint UN-AU operation in Dec., 2007, has not been effective. Attempts to establish a cease-fire produced only temporary results, though in the 2010s fighting lessened. In 2013 the one of the main Darfur rebel groups, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), signed a cease-fire agreement and committed itself to negotiations with Sudan, but subsequently there has been resurgent fighting in Darfur, and JEM and its allies also mounted attacks in Northern Kurdufan.

An estimated 300,000 persons have died in the fighting or from disease, hunger, and other causes arising from the fighting, and some 2.7 million people have been made refugees. The government and janjaweed have been accused by some of genocide, and in 2009 Sudan's president was indicted for war crimes by the International Criminal Court; in retaliation, Sudan ordered aid agencies to leave Darfur and other parts of Sudan.

Bibliography

See studies by M. W. Daly (2007), J. Hagan and W. Rymond-Richmond (2009), M. Mamdani (2009), and W. Rymond-Richmond (2009).

Darfur

 

a plateau in the Sudan between the basins of Lake Chad and the White Nile. The designation “plateau” is relative. since the predominant relief consists of socle plains composed of ancient crystalline rock from a projection of the African platform; there are many monadnocks. The central part includes the extinct volcano Jabal Marra, which at 3,088 m is the highest summit of Darfur. The plateau has an equatorial monsoon climate, torrid with a dry season of eight to nine months; precipitation measures 500–600 mm per year. There are no permanent rivers, and vegetation is typical wilderness savanna.

Darfur

a region of the W Sudan; an independent kingdom until conquered by Egypt in 1874
References in periodicals archive ?
Commissioner Michel urged the Sudanese Government and the rebel leaders to resume talks in the framework of the Darfur Peace Agreement.
The arrival of the international team comes as the joint investigations teams dispatched to Darfur earlier this month confirmed the outbreak of the haemorrhagic disease in several states in the western Sudan region.
Her Darfur photographs, a mixture of color and black-and-white, are less harrowing than her Rwanda ones, which document evidence of mass murder.
Arab gunmen from Darfur have pushed across the desert into Chad, stealing cattle, burning crops, and killing anyone who resists.
This support from the GE Foundation comes at a key moment when UNICEF's Darfur funds are significantly below needed levels.
Adam, a Visiting Fellow at the Institute for African Development (IAD), Cornell University; Abdelbagi Jibril Vice President, Darfur Relief and Documentation Centre in Geneva; and Abderhaman Gasim, External Relations Secretary of the Darfur Bar Association in Sudan.
The kiosks provided by Electronic Art will be used in the exhibit to enable guests to learn more about the struggles in Darfur and empower them to become more involved by supporting organizations that are actively helping refugees.
This was affirmed by the Minister of Urban Planning and Public Utilities of North Darfur State, Maj.
Peacekeepers from the hybrid African Union-United Nations operation in Darfur (UNAMID) patrol the damaged and empty Labado village in South Darfur on 10 December 2013 (Photo: Reuters/Mohamed Nureldin Abdallah)
Sudan is under mounting international pressure to rein in the militias and restore security to Darfur.
We are inspired and led by Don's passion to strengthen our global community and bring hope and humanity to the children and families of Darfur.
Addressing Sunday the displaced citizens at Um-Dhay Model village in De'ain town, East Darfur State, Sessi stressed the importance of the voluntary return of the displaced citizens to their home areas after providing the basic services for them.