David I


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David I,

1084–1153, king of Scotland (1124–53), youngest son of Malcolm III and St. Margaret of Scotland. During the reign of his brother Alexander I, whom he succeeded, David was earl of Cumbria, ruling S of the Clyde and Forth rivers. By his marriage to the heiress of the earl of Northumbria he also became earl of Huntingdon and acquired a claim to Northumbria. In the long struggle for the English crown between MatildaMatilda
or Maud,
1102–67, queen of England, daughter of Henry I of England. Henry arranged a marriage for her with Holy Roman Emperor Henry V, and she was sent to Germany, betrothed, and five years later (1114) married to him.
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 (his niece) and StephenStephen,
1097?–1154, king of England (1135–54). The son of Stephen, count of Blois and Chartres, and Adela, daughter of William I of England, he was brought up by his uncle, Henry I of England, who presented him with estates in England and France and arranged his
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, David fought for Matilda, but his main object was to secure Northumbria for himself. Although he was defeated by Stephen in the Battle of the Standard (1138), Stephen conceded him the earldom. David's internal rule was wise and momentous for Scotland. He made land grants to many Anglo-Norman families, thus providing the kingdom with a new feudal aristocracy. He also encouraged the commercial development of the Scottish burghs and strengthened the church by new foundations and endowments. He was succeeded by his grandson, Malcolm IV.

Bibliography

See study by A. M. Mackenzie (1954).

David I

1084--1153, king of Scotland (1124--53) who supported his niece Matilda's claim to the English throne and unsuccessfully invaded England on her behalf