Dawes Act


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Dawes Act

or

General Allotment Act,

1887, passed by the U.S. Congress to provide for the granting of landholdings (allotments, usually 160 acres/65 hectares) to individual Native Americans, replacing communal tribal holdings. Sponsored by U.S. Senator H. L. DawesDawes, Henry Laurens,
1816–1903, U.S. Senator (1875–93), b. Cummington, Mass. He was U.S. district attorney for W Massachusetts (1853–57) and a Republican member of the House of Representatives (1857–75).
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, the aim of the act was to absorb tribe members into the larger national society. Allotments could be sold after a statutory period (25 years), and "surplus" land not allotted was opened to settlers. Within decades following the passage of the act the vast majority of what had been tribal land in the West was in white hands.

The act also established a trust fund to collect and distribute proceeds from oil, mineral, timber, and grazing leases on Native American lands. The failure of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to manage this trust fund properly led to legislation and lawsuits in the 1990s and early 2000s to force the government to properly account for the revenues collected.

References in periodicals archive ?
The Dawes Act of 1887 and the reservation system dramatically changed daily life and political dynamics, particularly for the Oglala Lakotas.
Each man held the rank of governor for a time between the years of 1855 and 1892, and they would witness the harsh consequences of Indian Removal, the American Civil War, and the Dawes Act (a law created to compel American Indian assimilation into mainstream society, by forcing the sale of Native American lands).
The friends' crowning achievement, known variously as the Dawes Act of 1887 or the General Allotment Act, had several primary goals, including:
Beginning with a discussion of theories of tribal sovereignty, the work covers policy and treaties from the middle eighteenth century, the revolutionary period, the Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts, federal recognition of tribes, Jackson and the westward removal, the Dawes Act, and the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
It's been compared to the 1887 Dawes Act, south of the border.
Nevertheless, Flanagan foresees that some might compare Beyond the Indian Act's plan for property reform on Indian reserves to the epic failure of the 1887 Dawes Act in the United States.
Under the Dawes Act of 1887, whose policies attacked tribes' cultures and ways, the grandfather and Hart's father became settled farmers.
The passage of the Dawes Act in 1887 forced Native peoples to become farmers while attempting to dissolve their tribal structure.
Part IV will further assert that the logic of the Supreme Court in City of Sherrill is inconsistent with the current policy regarding Indian sovereignty as embodied by the Dawes Act of 1887, (18) the federal provision relating to acquisition of Indian lands as codified in 25 U.
We will explore the influences of Dakota family law, the Dawes Act, and poverty on historical family structure, each of which suggests insights into healthy adaptations.
It is this thought process that led to the Dawes Act of 1887 as well as a majority of U.
Her study centers on the century starting with the Indian Removal Act of 1830 through the Dawes Act of 1887 that granted reservation land to individual tribesmen, to the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 that returned certain land to Indian tribes.