Dawes Act

(redirected from Dawes Act of 1887)

Dawes Act

or

General Allotment Act,

1887, passed by the U.S. Congress to provide for the granting of landholdings (allotments, usually 160 acres/65 hectares) to individual Native Americans, replacing communal tribal holdings. Sponsored by U.S. Senator H. L. DawesDawes, Henry Laurens,
1816–1903, U.S. Senator (1875–93), b. Cummington, Mass. He was U.S. district attorney for W Massachusetts (1853–57) and a Republican member of the House of Representatives (1857–75).
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, the aim of the act was to absorb tribe members into the larger national society. Allotments could be sold after a statutory period (25 years), and "surplus" land not allotted was opened to settlers. Within decades following the passage of the act the vast majority of what had been tribal land in the West was in white hands.

The act also established a trust fund to collect and distribute proceeds from oil, mineral, timber, and grazing leases on Native American lands. The failure of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to manage this trust fund properly led to legislation and lawsuits in the 1990s and early 2000s to force the government to properly account for the revenues collected.

References in periodicals archive ?
The Dawes Act of 1887 and the reservation system dramatically changed daily life and political dynamics, particularly for the Oglala Lakotas.
Their clan structure, languages and tribal dress gradually fell into disuse by the mid 19 century and then suffered land loss after the Dawes Act of 1887.
The friends' crowning achievement, known variously as the Dawes Act of 1887 or the General Allotment Act, had several primary goals, including:
The Allotment Plot makes a persuasive case that teasing out these seemingly conflicting approaches to implementing the Dawes Act of 1887 (the federal law that required reservation lands be divided up into individual and family tracts) demands that historians explore several different kinds of records and place them in conversation with each other.
Under the Dawes Act of 1887, whose policies attacked tribes' cultures and ways, the grandfather and Hart's father became settled farmers.
Part IV will further assert that the logic of the Supreme Court in City of Sherrill is inconsistent with the current policy regarding Indian sovereignty as embodied by the Dawes Act of 1887, (18) the federal provision relating to acquisition of Indian lands as codified in 25 U.
This process, to be accomplished under the tutelage of agents and missionaries, was authorized by the Dawes Act of 1887 and its subsequent amendments.
It is this thought process that led to the Dawes Act of 1887 as well as a majority of U.
Her study centers on the century starting with the Indian Removal Act of 1830 through the Dawes Act of 1887 that granted reservation land to individual tribesmen, to the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 that returned certain land to Indian tribes.
LaVere explains that even issues such as the Dawes Act of 1887 and the Curtis Act of 1898, which should have brought these two groups of Indians together, failed to foster a permanent sense of commonality.
This lesson offers historical background on federal Indian policy from 1870 to 1900, focusing on the Dawes Act of 1887 (with two resources).
Hopi chiefs respond to the assault on their culture represented by the Dawes Act of 1887.