Decarboxylation


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Related to Decarboxylation: Decarboxylation reaction

Decarboxylation

 

the elimination of CO2 from the carboxyl group of carboxylic acids RCOOH. Heating such an acid with soda lime yields the hydrocarbon RH and CO2. Such carboxylic acids as cyanoacetic acid, CNCH2COOH, and malonic acid, CH2(COOH)2, lose CO2 upon simple heating. Upon treatment with concentrated H2SO4, oxalic acid yields CO, CO2, and water; formic acid yields CO2 and H2. Aromatic acids undergo decarboxylation when heated in quinoline in the presence of copper powder.

Fermentation decarboxylation plays an important part in metabolic processes. Amino acids are decarboxylated by decarboxylases, whose coenzyme is primarily phosphopyridoxal. Decarboxylation of amino acids is widespread among microorganisms, particularly the bacteria that are part of the microflora of the intestines of animals and man. Decarboxylation of a number of amino acids in animal tissues leads to formation of biogenic amines (histamine and serotonin, as well as γ-aminobutyric acid, taurine, and noradrenaline). The decarboxylation of α-keto acids is brought about by decarboxylases, whose coenzyme is thiamine pyrophosphate. The oxidation decarboxylation of pyrotartaric and α-ketoglutaric acids in animals and plants plays a large part in the Krebs cycle. In cells of microorganisms, pyrotartaric acid can be decarboxylated without access of oxygen, for example, in alcoholic fermentation.

References in periodicals archive ?
Instead of undergoing the Maillard reaction, Ganem suggests that fried or baked foods undergo an alternative chemical pathway that results in the loss of carbon dioxide through natural metabolic processes, known as enzymatic decarboxylation.
Glycine turnover and decarboxylation rate quantified in healthy men and women using primed, constant infusions of [1,2-(13)C2]glycine and [(2)H3]leucine.
In addition to the methods based on lactose fermentation, others such as MUG and tryptophan hydrolysis and glutamic acid and lysine decarboxylation are also recommended by Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater as biochemical methods for E.
CoQ10 is synthesized in the mitochondrial inner membrane from tyrosine or phenylalanine and acetyl coenzyme A by the enzyme decaprenyl diphosphate synthase followed by condensation, decarboxylation, hydroxylation, and methylation steps (7).
The O/C versus N/C atomic ratios indicate that the decarboxylation processes were in line with the reduction of the N concentration relative to the C content in HAs.
Glucose, taken up by secondary active transporter proteins, is degraded to pyruvate which is then introduced into the citric acid cycle after its decarboxylation to acetyl coenzyme A.
They can also differentiate into various other cell types including, neuroendocrine and amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation cells, (19,20) melanocytes, mesenchymal cells, and chondrocytes.
Histamine is a hydrophilic vasoactive amine, derived from the decarboxylation of the amino acid histidine (6, 7).
Anacardic acid content is high in raw cashew nut shell which undergoes decarboxylation to cardanol during the extraction of the shells at high temperature.
Maillard reaction is an important source of unusual flavours by the thermal breakdown of sugars and decarboxylation of amino acids to produce specific flavours.
Crude CNSL is distilled to get cardanol by the decarboxylation of Anacardic acid at 135-140[degrees]C to get commercial CNSL it contains 60-70% of cardanol and 10-15% of cardol and 15-30% of polymeric residol (residol is separated)
LODOSYN (carbidopa), an inhibitor of aromatic amino acid decarboxylation, is indicated for use with carbidopa-levodopa or with levodopa in the treatment of the symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (paralysis agitans), postencephalitic parkinsonism, and symptomatic parkinsonism.