Deccan Plateau


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Deccan Plateau

 

(from Sanskrit dakshin, or south), a plateau covering the interior of the Hindustan peninsula, between the Narmada River on the north and the Cauvery River on the south. The plateau covers about 1 million sq km. Its surface is raised at the edges and tilted eastward, so that most rivers cross the plateau from west to east and empty into the Bay of Bengal. The plateau’s relief is determined by broad expanses of Mesozoic and Paleo-Neocene outcrops reaching respectively 1,000-1,500, 600-900, and 300-500 m. There are also laterite crusts reaching as high as 100 m, above which rise insular mountains of 1,000-2,000 m with domed peaks. The northwestern part of the Deccan plateau is typified by stepped plateau denudational structures in the relief. The river valleys in the central regions are broad, and those on the borders of the plateau are narrow and precipitous. Geologically, the Deccan plateau forms part of the Indian platform, which is composed chiefly of Archean and Proterozoic gneisses, crystalline schists and quartzites, partially alternating with granite intrusions. In the northwest there are basalt mantles (traps) of the upper Cretaceous and Eocene epochs, ranging in thickness from 1,500 to 1,800 m and covering about 520,000 sq km. There are deposits of iron, copper, manganese, tungsten, gold, and coal.

The climate of the Deccan plateau is subequatorial monsoon. The basic seasons are a dry, cool period (November to February), a hot, dry period (March and April), and a hot, rainy period (May to October). Annual precipitation in the central region is 500-700 mm and on the windward slopes 2,500-3,000 mm. The maximum rain falls in the summer. The average temperature in May, the warmest month, is 29°-32°C, and in January is 21°-24°C. The rivers Narmada, Mahānadī, Godāvari, Cauvery, and the others have a monsoon profile. The predominant soil types are red laterites, reddish-brown soils, and on traps, black tropical soils, or regurs. Zonal types of landscape are monsoon deciduous forests on the windward slopes, dry savanna and sparse forests in the central region, and arid savannas in the west, in the rain shadow of the western Ghats. Virgin forests are preserved on 10-15 percent of the territory, mainly on mountain slopes and hills. They are mainly teak, sal, ironwood, and bamboo. About 60 percent of the territory is cultivated. There are more than 150,000 reservoirs for irrigation and water supply. The basic agricultural crops are grains, beans, oil-bearing plants, and cotton. The remaining territory is a heavily used grazing area, which includes the secondary thin forest, scrub growth, and jungles.

REFERENCES

Zarubezhnaia Aziia: Fizicheskaia geografiia. Moscow, 1956.
Riabchikov, A. M. Priroda Indii. Moscow, 1950.

A. M. RIABCHIKOV and L. I. KURAKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
This final question re-examines conclusions derived from the analysis of craniometric variation in Chalcolithic human skeletal series of the Deccan Plateau.
The book covers the thirteenth century to the present, encompassing Sufi orders throughout the Indian subcontinent (although the Deccan Plateau, and the Chishtis and Qadiris, receive the most thorough treatment).
Like else where, even in Zaheerabad region of Medak district in Deccan Plateau, Redgram and Bengal gram are the two major pulse crops grown to an extent of 50,000 ha.
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com/), a microfinance institution (MFI) that provides microcredit loans to the poor in the Deccan plateau region of Southern India.
Rather than casting his net around all the travel accounts of Europeans in India during this long stretch of almost four centuries, he has chosen to focus in on Vijayanagar, a Hindu kingdom in the southern Deccan plateau region which flourished from the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries.
As I return home to my modest roots in the parched and panting Deccan Plateau, I am reminded of the book and its tribute to monsoon, the season of rains and revival that arrives in June amid great excitement and anticipation.
To the south, separated by mountains and hills, is the Deccan plateau.
The Pilbara Craton, one of the oldest parts the continental lithosphere was joined to the Deccan Plateau of India through the Indo- Australian tectonic plate.
As many as 140 people had died and property worth Rs 10,000 crore was destroyed when the Krishna and Tungabhadra rivers flooded the northern Deccan Plateau last year.
They (the Western Ghats) have very rare plants, flora and fauna not only that the Western Ghats are the source of the rivers which feed the Deccan Plateau without the Western Ghats we will not have water in the most of the Deccan Plateau.
After traversing the Himalayas and criss-crossing the Indo-Gangetic plains, the rallyists will pedal through the Deccan plateau before reaching the Indian Ocean coast.