To produce figure 1,1 start with the initial annual Social Security benefit for the median retired household from the fifth decile
of household lifetime earnings, as calculated by John Karl Scholz, Ananth Seshadri, and Surachai Khitatrakun (2006) (referred to hereafter as SSK) and shown in real (2005) dollars.
This resulted in slightly more stability for the highest decile
, but not for the lowest.
For the bottom decile
, Medicare and Medicaid combined represent 67% of cash income [($1,591 + $2,085)/$5,500], but by the fifth decile
they represent just 5% [($241 + $1,407)/$30,920] and by the top decile
they represent less than 0.
I label these deciles
1 through 10, ordered from the lowest to the highest median home price in 1970).
This shock again leads to an increase in household income for all income deciles
, with the exception of the lowest decile
(see Table 4).
Table 4 illustrates the median and lower decile
pension replacement ratios resulting from calculating the replacement ratio in Equation (10).
The income decile
variable created by Statistics Canada was used as a relative measure of household income.
Logistic regression models were fitted comparing deciles
of PFOA or PFOS in relation to high biomarker levels.
Using unpublished BLS total compensation data, including employer health insurance expenditures, from 1999 to 2006, he finds that the growth in compensation by earnings decile
(from the 30th to the 99th) averages 35 percent, with 41 percent growth at the 30th percentile (workers earning $10-$14 an hour) and only 35.
Conditional upon the high volatility state, expected one-year-ahead returns for the value decile
are substantially higher than those for the growth decile
This alternative representation is shown in Figure 3 (where D1 is the 10% decile
, D2 is the 20% decile
, and so on).
Companies in the top decile
of the database, however, had a ratio of eight engaged employees for every actively disengaged employee.