Declaration of the Conference of the Representatives of the Communist
Declaration of the Conference of the Representatives of the Communist and Workers’ Parties (1960)
the program document unanimously adopted at the Conference of the Representatives of 81 Communist and Workers’ Parties, held in Moscow in November 1960.
The declaration defined the principal positions of the inter-national communist movement on the most important problems of the present time, and it outlined the prospects for world development. The declaration states: “Our epoch, the basic content of which is the transition from capitalism to socialism, begun by the Great October Socialist Revolution, is an epoch of struggle between two opposing social systems, an epoch of socialist revolutions and national liberation revolutions, an epoch of the collapse of imperialism and the elimination of the colonial system, an epoch when ever more nations are switching to the path of socialism, an epoch of the triumph of socialism and communism on a worldwide scale” (Programmnye documenty bor’by za mir, demokratiiu, i sotsializm, Moscow, 1964, p. 39). The declaration notes that the capitalist system, seized by a profound process of decline and decay, has irretrievably lost its dominant position in the world. The principal content, trend, and characteristics of historical development are now determined by the world socialist system, by the forces that are struggling against imperialism and for a socialist reconstruction of society.
The declaration developed the principles of mutual relations among the socialist countries; it also indicated the paths for the successful development of each socialist country and of the world socialist community as a whole. The declaration underscored the enormous importance of solidarity among the socialist countries, of unity among the communist and workers’ parties and among the peoples of socialist coun-tries, and of loyalty of the peoples and parties to the teachings of Marxism-Leninism. It further pointed out that the world socialist system is becoming a decisive factor in the development of human society.
The declaration reaffirmed the conclusion of the Twentieth Congress of the CPSU that the fatal inevitability of war no longer exists, now that real forces have taken shape that are capable of averting the aggressive plans of imperialism. So long as imperialism remains, however, the seed of aggressive wars still exists. Therefore, the nations must be prepared to take steps to curb the aggressors in time, to prevent war, and to compel the imperialists to come to an agreement on general disarmament. The declaration states that under the conditions of the world’s division into two systems the only rational principle of international relations is the principle of peaceful coexistence of states with differing social systems. The declaration reveals the historical significance of the downfall of the system of colonialism and sheds light on the prospects of the national liberation movement. While noting that the best way to eliminate age-old backwardness and to improve the living conditions for peoples in countries that have freed themselves from colonialism is the path of noncapitalistic development, the declaration advances the new Marxist-Leninist thesis concerning the national democratic state. The formation and strengthening of the national democratic state ensure that it will be possible for liberated coun-tries to develop rapidly along the path of social progress and to play an active role in the struggle for peace and for the complete elimination of colonialism.
The declaration indicates the principal directions to be taken in the struggle of the working class and the toiling masses of the capitalist countries both for their immediate aims and for their ultimate goals. While opposing the export of revolution, the communists at the same time resolutely fight against the imperialistic export of counterrevolution. Socialist revolution is the result of the internal development of each country. The forms and paths of its development, peaceful or nonpeaceful, are determined by specific historical conditions. Of exceptional importance are the principles formulated in the declaration concerning the interrelations among Communist parties and their international obligations. The declaration states: “The resolute protection of the unity of the international communist movement, based on the principles of Marxism-Leninism and proletarian internationalism and the prevention of any actions whatsoever that can undermine this unity, represent the necessary condition for vic-tory in the struggle for national independence, democracy, and peace, for the successful solution of the tasks of socialist revolution, and for the building of socialism and communism” (ibid., pp. 82–83). While indicating that all Marxist-Leninist parties are independent and have equal rights, the participants in the conference considered it necessary to underscore the role of the CPSU as the generally accepted vanguard of the world communist movement.
The declaration indicated the necessity of combatting revisionism as the chief danger at that time. But it also emphasized that dogmatism and sectarianism in theory and practice, if not met by a consistent struggle, may become the principal danger at one or another stage of development of individual parties. The declaration called upon the Communist parties to wage a struggle against bourgeois ideology, anticommunism, and all forms of reformism and opportunism.
On the eve of the conference and at the conference itself the leaders of the Communist Party of China (CPC) attempted to press their own anti-Marxist ideas upon all the fraternal parties. It was only because they were in danger of remaining in complete isolation that the delegation of the CPC signed the declaration. However, the leadership of the CPC soon renewed their schismatic activity in the international communist movement. This same position was also taken by the leadership of the Albanian Workers Party. Their schismatic position evoked the condemnation of the overwhelming majority of the communist and workers’ parties.
PUBLICATIONProgrammnye dokumenty bor’by za mir, demokratiiu i sotsializm. Moscow, 1964.
E. I. KUSKOV