Deep Blue


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Deep Blue

(computer)
A super computer developed by researchers at IBM to explore the use of parallel processing to solve complex computing problems. It is known as the first computer to beat the current chess World Grand Master.

Deep Blue started it's life as a PhD project at Carnegie Mellon University by PhD students Feng-hsiung Hsu and Murray Campbell. Chiptest, as it was known then, consisted of a custom designed chip hosted in a Sun 3/160 computer.

The project moved over to IBM in 1989 when Hsu and Campbell joined IBM. Deep Thought, as it was known by then, played for the first time against Garry Kasparov in the same year. The game of two matches was easily won by Kasparov.

The next match against Kasparov took place in February 1996. By then the machine was again renamed, at that time it was known as Deep Blue. It was also heavily re-engineered: it was by then running on a 32-node RS/6000 cluster, each containing 8 custom designed chips. Alas, Kasparov won again.

The breakthrough finally happened in February 1997: with both the algorithm and the raw speed significantly improved, Deep Blue beat Kasparov 3.5:2.5.

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Deep Blue

The first computer to beat a human chess master. In 1996, IBM's Deep Blue beat Garry Kasparov in game one of a six-game match and won the entire rematch a year later.

From ChipTest to Deep Thought to Deep Blue
Deep Blue originated as the ChipTest chess-playing computer at Carnegie Mellon University in the mid-1980s. Evolving into Deep Thought under IBM's direction, it won the North American and World Class Chess Championships in the late 1980s.

Specialized for Chess
Deep Blue was based on a 30-node RS/6000 parallel computer running AIX (IBM's Unix). With each node augmented by 480 chips specialized for the game, Deep Blue could evaluate up to 20 chess moves ahead. See RS/6000 and Watson.
References in classic literature ?
Most of his poems, other than certain political satire, which drew on him the Emperor's wrath, are full of subtle sadness and fragrant regret, reminding one of pot-pourri in some deep blue porcelain bowl.
The wind itself had ceased and a brilliant, deep blue sky arched high over the moorland.
Half the sky was chequered with black thunderheads, but all the west was luminous and clear: in the lightning flashes it looked like deep blue water, with the sheen of moonlight on it; and the mottled part of the sky was like marble pavement, like the quay of some splendid seacoast city, doomed to destruction.
contrast finely with the deep blue lake; and toward the north,
A moment before all was dullness, but a PAS further has placed us on the summit of the Furka; and exactly in front of us, at a HOPOW of only fifteen miles, this magnificent mountain lifts its snow-wreathed precipices into the deep blue sky.
Minerva sent them a fair wind from the West, {22} that whistled over the deep blue waves {23} whereon Telemachus told them to catch hold of the ropes and hoist sail, and they did as he told them.
Always dressed in white, she seemed to move like a shadow through all sorts of places, without contracting spot or stain; and there was not a corner or nook, above or below, where those fairy footsteps had not glided, and that visionary golden head, with its deep blue eyes, fleeted along.
Vivid orchids and wonderful colored lichens smoldered upon the swarthy tree-trunks and where a wandering shaft of light fell full upon the golden allamanda, the scarlet star-clusters of the tacsonia, or the rich deep blue of ipomaea, the effect was as a dream of fairyland.
But these fantasies vanished upon reaching the quiet outskirts of the town; for as soon as we came within sight of the venerable old church, and the--hill, with the deep blue beyond it, I found my companion was cheerful enough.
While I thus stood, leaning on my gun, and looking up at the dark gables, sunk in an idle reverie, weaving a tissue of wayward fancies, in which old associations and the fair young hermit, now within those walls, bore a nearly equal part, I heard a slight rustling and scrambling just within the garden; and, glancing in the direction whence the sound proceeded, I beheld a tiny hand elevated above the wall: it clung to the topmost stone, and then another little hand was raised to take a firmer hold, and then appeared a small white forehead, surmounted with wreaths of light brown hair, with a pair of deep blue eyes beneath, and the upper portion of a diminutive ivory nose.
The very intelligence that shone in her deep blue eye, and was stamped upon her noble head, seemed scarcely of her age, or of the world; and yet the changing expression of sweetness and good humour, the thousand lights that played about the face, and left no shadow there; above all, the smile, the cheerful, happy smile, were made for Home, and fireside peace and happiness.
The sky is of a deep blue color, and the sunsets are often magnificent beyond description.