Deep Sea Drilling Project


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Deep Sea Drilling Project,

U.S. program designed to investigate the evolution of ocean basins by core drilling of ocean sediments and underlying oceanic crust. Funded by the National Science Foundation, the project was directed by the Joint Oceanographic Institution for Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES), a consortium of leading U.S. oceanographic institutions. Begun in 1964, a test drilling program was completed successfully in 1965; by 1968, the Glomar Challenger, displacing 10,500 tons and capable of drilling 2,500 ft (760 m) of sediment in 20,000 ft (6,100 m) of water, was leased to JOIDES. The scientific operations carried out on board consisted of continuous seismic and magnetic surveys while underway, in-hole measurements, and laboratory analysis of the cores recovered. The project verified that the present ocean basins are relatively young and confirmed aspects of seafloor spreadingseafloor spreading,
theory of lithospheric evolution that holds that the ocean floors are spreading outward from vast underwater ridges. First proposed in the early 1960s by the American geologist Harry H.
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 and plate tectonicsplate tectonics,
theory that unifies many of the features and characteristics of continental drift and seafloor spreading into a coherent model and has revolutionized geologists' understanding of continents, ocean basins, mountains, and earth history.
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. It also discovered thick bedded salt layers from cores taken out of the Mediterranean Sea, indicating that the sea completely dried up between 5 and 12 million years ago; that Antarctica has been covered with ice for the last 20 million years; and that the northern polar ice cap was much more extensive 5 million years ago. The Deep Sea Drilling Project drilled about 600 holes into the ocean floors over the world, about one hole per 308,880 square mi (800,000 square km). The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), begun in 1983 and supported by a U.S.-led consortium that included 25 nations, was the successor of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. The program employed the drillship JOIDES Resolution and was managed by Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI). On more than 110 cruises, it drilled in poorly sampled areas, including continental margins and ocean trenches. In addition, the ODP contributed to other programs, such as drilling holes in which to lower seismic instruments necessary for a global seismic network project. A total of 1,797 holes were drilled at 669 sites. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which began in 2003, succeeded the ODP. The U.S. National Science Foundation and Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology are the lead agencies. Other participating international organizations are the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling, China's Ministry of Science and Technology, the Interim Asian Consortium, the Australian-New Zealand IODP Consortium (ANZIC), and India's Ministry of Earth Science. The program's major research vessels are the drillship Chikyu, which is operated by Japan's Center for Deep Earth Exploration, and the JOIDES Resolution, which is managed by the U.S. Implementing Organization. The Chikyu has an improved drilling system that allows it to drill more deeply than previous drillships. The IODP will examine the biosphere under the ocean floor, seek information on climatic change recorded in seafloor cores, and investigate mass and energy transfers between the crust and mantle.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the 1960s, the Deep Sea Drilling Project provided a test of the plate tectonic hypothesis and a basic reconnaissance of deep-sea sediments and crustal rocks.
It details the first three projects (the Deep Sea Drilling Project, the Ocean Drilling Program, and the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program), which occurred between 1968 and the present, and how they have shaped understanding of Earth systems and history, identifying accomplishments in solid Earth cycles; fluids, flow, and life in the subseafloor; and Earth's climate history.
A deep sea drilling project, which is scheduled off the Libyan coast this autumn has furnished new explosive political issues.
Britain was one of the founding members of the International Phase of Ocean Drilling (IPOD) which began in 1975, but British scientists had, in fact, participated in earlier phases of the Deep Sea Drilling Project aboard D/V Glomar Challenger.
Krasheninnikov participated in the US Deep Sea Drilling Project, and in 1974 the USSR Academy of Sciences became the first foreign partner in this successful project.
Dredging the ocean floor helped confirm the identities of ophiolitic sections, but Russian marine geologists and geophysicists who participated in the Deep Sea Drilling Project did not fully accept this view until 1981, when a dike complex was penetrated in Hole 504B.
Lumsden examined the reported dolomite content of 844 marine sediment samples cored during the Deep Sea Drilling Project from 127 sites in the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Black Sea and Gulf-Caribbean.
Cores obtained from oceanic plateaus and volcanic passive margins by the Deep Sea Drilling Project and the Ocean Drilling Program, together with high-quality seismic reflection images have been instrumental in allowing scientists to understand the causes and effects of large igneous provinces.
The Deep Sea Drilling Project entered into the conflict by conducting three legs in search of the imprint of sea-level changes along continental margins: Leg 80 drilled on the Irish continental slope, and Legs 93 and 95 drilled on the New Jersey slope and rise.
Smith in the university's department of geology and geophysics reports in the March GEOLOGY on the magnetic properties of core samples taken from drill hole 504B, which penetrated 1,350 meters into the crust during Leg 83 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP).
The project foundered in budgetary excess and the political process, but nonetheless gave birth to what must be the most successful international scientific cooperation in history: the Deep Sea Drilling Project and its successor, the Ocean Drilling Program.
Texas A&M University (TAMU) is the ODP science operator and ship manager, and the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (L-DGO) maintains all aspects of wire-line logging data from JOIDES Resolution cruises and combines them with the archived data from the Deep Sea Drilling Project, ODP's predecessor.