, the leaf blade was severed with a scissors at the point of attachment to the petiole; one-fourth of the leaves were removed (25% defoliation
) and half (50% defoliation
Notes on the defoliation
of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) by the butterfly Opsiphanes quiteria quirinus in northeastern Cost Rica.
citri causes direct damage such as deformations of growing leaves , shoot drying, defoliation
, and the presence of sooty mold (Hodkinson 1974; Aubert 1987; Michaud 2004), it is as a vector of the plant pathogens causing HLB that this psyllid has acquired major importance for citrus, becoming the main insect pest of this crop.
Higher number of ants, predatory bugs and spiders decreased the number of lepidopteran leaf miners and percent defoliation
The result: virtually no damage--less than 1 percent defoliation
25 acres planted with red-oak seedlings, replacing those lost to severe drought and gypsy-moth defoliation
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Post release monitoring of the herbivore in Florida indicates that feeding by psyllids induces leaf senescence, eventually resulting in partial defoliation
of mature trees and mortality of seedlings (Center et al.
eventually kills deciduous trees and a single defoliation
It is difficult to permanently alter the character of a soil, and I suspect it is the soil that is your undoing - a combination of poor drainage and excess salt, which could certainly bring on the constant defoliation
overall and in Pennsylvania, where more defoliation
has occurred than in any other state.
In 2004, the state Department of Agriculture sprayed about 30,000 acres in eight counties, and in 2003 nearly 65,000 acres of defoliation
occurred in the state.