Demetrius I


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Demetrius I

(Demetrius Poliorcetes) (dĭmē`trēəs pŏl'ēôrsē`tēz), c.337–283 B.C., king of Macedon. The son of Antigonus IAntigonus I
(Antigonus the One-Eyed or Antigonus Cyclops) , 382?–301 B.C., general of Alexander the Great and ruler in Asia. He was made (333 B.C.) governor of Phrygia, and after the death of Alexander he was advanced by the friendship of Antipater, who with Ptolemy I and
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, he proved himself a very able commander in his father's wars, particularly against Ptolemy IPtolemy I
(Ptolemy Soter) , d. 284 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, the first ruler of the Macedonian dynasty (or Lagid dynasty), son of a Macedonian named Lagus. He was one of the leading generals of Alexander the Great, and after Alexander's death (323 B.C.
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. Though Ptolemy defeated him at Gaza in 312 B.C., Demetrius was able to expel CassanderCassander
, 358–297 B.C., king of Macedon, one of the chief figures in the wars of the Diadochi. The son of Antipater, he was an officer under Alexander the Great, but there was ill feeling between them.
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 from Athens; he then defeated Ptolemy off Salamis and took Cyprus. Although he had huge armaments, including new weapons of assault, he failed (305 B.C.) to take Rhodes by sea. When Cassander, Seleucus ISeleucus I
(Seleucus Nicator) , d. 280 B.C., king of ancient Syria. An able general of Alexander the Great, he played a leading part in the wars of the Diadochi. In the new partition of the empire in 312 B.C. he received Babylonia.
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, and LysimachusLysimachus
, c.355–281 B.C., Thessalian general of Alexander the Great. He was a commander in Alexander's fleet on the Hydaspes as well as his bodyguard. On Alexander's death (323 B.C.) Lysimachus took control of Thrace. He joined (314 B.C.
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, fearing the power of Antigonus, allied themselves against him, Antigonus and Demetrius were badly defeated in the battle of Ipsus in 301 B.C., and Antigonus was killed. Demetrius later became reconciled with Seleucus I and regained Athens for himself in 295 B.C. In order to obtain the throne of Macedon he murdered his competitors, including the sons of Cassander, and succeeded (294 B.C.) to the throne. He had his father's ambition to conquer all Asia, but his enemies united against him, and when Lysimachus and PyrrhusPyrrhus
, c.318–272 B.C., Molossian king of Epirus. He fought at Ipsus in Asia Minor in the service of Demetrius Poliorcetes (later Demetrius I) of Macedon, and by the aid of Ptolemy I he became (297 B.C.) joint king of Epirus with Neoptolemus.
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 invaded Macedonia he was forced (285 B.C.) to take refuge with Seleucus, who held him until he died. His son, Antigonus IIAntigonus II
(Antigonus Gonatas) , c.320–239 B.C., king of Macedon, son of Demetrius I. He took the title king on his father's death (283) but made good his claim only by defeating the Gauls in Thrace and by taking Macedon in 276.
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, made good his claim to the throne of Macedon.

Demetrius I

(Demetrius Soter) (dĭmē`trēəs sō`tər), c.187–150 B.C., king of ancient Syria (162–150 B.C.), son of Seleucus IV. He was sent as a hostage to Rome, where he remained during the reigns of his father and his uncle Antiochus IV. After Antiochus died, he was succeeded by his son Antiochus V, but Demetrius escaped (162 B.C.), killed his cousin, and took the throne. He put down the revolt of the general Timarchus in Babylon and set out to crush the Maccabees. The usurper Alexander Balas rose against Demetrius and was supported by the Maccabean party as well as by Egypt and Pergamum. Demetrius was defeated in battle.

Demetrius I

 

King from about 189 to about 167 B.C. of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, which under his rule reached the highest point of its power.

Demetrius conquered a number of regions in what is now Afghanistan and northwest India. He built a capital in north-west India, and on his coins he gave himself the title of King of the Indians. Around 175 B.C., Eucratides, the king of Bactria, revolted against Demetrius. In the battle against him Demetrius perished and his kingdom disintegrated. Menander, Demetrius’s general, became king of the Indian part of the kingdom.

REFERENCES

Tolstov, S. P. Drevnii Khorezm. Moscow, 1948.
Trever, K. Pamiatniki greko-baktriiskogo iskusstva. Moscow-Leningrad, 1940.