I speculate that the unguents and ointments found by demonologists
and other persecutors consisted mainly of burnt residue from the toxic and semitoxic substances that were incinerated and inhaled.
Finally, Jean Ceard examines the lingering hold that the demonology of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries exerted upon the imaginations of the later Romantics, as exemplified by authors such as Jacques Collin de Plancy, who "rediscovered" earlier demonologists
in the fifteenth century were already presenting extended arguments against the idea that witches were really melancholics, suggesting that the medical model already had currency.
Many readers not drawn to the anachronistic aspects of this impassioned conclusion will nonetheless find themselves enlightened and engaged by Maggi's skillful, even brilliant, reconstruction of how demons and demonologists
thought and spoke about each other in Counter Reformation Europe.
We would merely replace the Tory 'backwoodsmen' beloved by Labour demonologists
with a new breed of unelected placemen and women whose right to rule is in the gift of political leaders rather than the electorate at large.
Played by Vera Farmiga and Patrick Wilson, Lorraine and Ed Warren were known American demonologists
who founded the New England Society for Psychic Research in 1952 and claimed to have investigated more than 10,000 cases of paranormal activities.
Medieval inquisitors had played a role in creating this fantasy, but sixteenth-century demonologists
conducted a spirited debate on the subject, which Decker discusses at length.
So Renaissance demonologists
examined spirits "come from the past to address us with some burning request" (24).
Hence, implicitly drawing on the "familiar association between treason and the demonic" (10) and on the scriptural assertion (oft-quoted by demonologists
and political theorists alike) that "rebellion is as the sinne of witchcraft" (1 Sam.
He acknowledges the misogyny present, but always insists that, deeper still, demonologists
were motivated by theological fears to do with maintaining their faith.
64) On the one hand, the demonologists
(and, following them, generations of historians) may have emphasized the pact with the Devil, but in general the law put equal emphasis on harmful magic, while commoners, as already noted, were far more interested in this aspect of the crime than its theological implications.
In this climate, demonologists
could only decry the crown's and the courts' failures to deal adequately with cases of demonic possession, and rail against the demonic motivations of Huguenots and religious and political moderates.