Briefly, dendritic cells
were differentiated in vitro from blood monocytes largely according to published protocols (Zhou and Tedder 1996) but with a few modifications, including the addition of interleukin-1[alpha] and tumor necrosis factor-a on day 5 of culture.
This patent covers both the in vivo and ex vivo activation of dendritic cells
using our CpG oligos," said Robert L.
CD68 (PG-M1) was expressed only in reactive dendritic cells
within the tumor.
The study showed that it is possible to convert normal mouse bone marrow cells into dendritic cells
that can be transferred into other mice to confer 100 percent protection from a 3-4 fold LD50 dose viral (HSV-1) challenge.
By tracking specific antigens, researchers were able to demonstrate that the protein antigens were produced inside dendritic cells
transfected with the amplified RNA.
NYU School of Medicine researchers found an abundance of dendritic cells
in the liver can protect the organ from acetaminophen damage while low levels of dendritic cells
in the liver are associated with exacerbated liver damage, liver cell and tissue death, known as centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and acute liver failure from acetaminophen.
In 1998, Raposo, who had moved to the Curie Institute, joined with colleagues in France and Italy to report that dendritic cells
also secrete exosomes containing MHC-antigen complexes.
The main function of follicular dendritic cells
is to trap and present antigens and immune complexes.
These dendritic cells
travel through the pores of the polymer sponge where they are exposed to antigens specific to the tumor and learn that these antigens identify the target that should be attacked by the immune system.
The standard methods used to produce dendritic cells
today involve several key steps, which start with precursors of dendritic cells
(called "monocytes") obtained through a blood draw, then develop the precursors into immature dendritic cells
, and finally develop these cells into mature and activated dendritic cells
come into contact with other immune cells the T cells, causing them to transform into different subsets of T cells, including helper 1 (Th1) and helper 2 (Th2) cells.
are crucial to an immune response since they alert antibody-producing cells and other protective cells to the presence of dangerous microbes.