Since these contributions, saponins have been isolated from numerous species of Aspidochirotida and Dendrochirotida
and also from sea stars (Mackie and Turner, 1970; Kitagawa and Kobayashi, 1977; Demeyer et al, 2014).
From Pakistan total 11 genera and 14 species of sea cucumbers have been recorded belonging to the orders Aspidochirotida and Dendrochirotida
to which most of the commercial species belong.
There is a huge diversity of species of sea cucumbers (66 species) that are harvested commercially and traded around the world, with the majority of these species belonging to the order Aspidochirotida, and only a few to the order Dendrochirotida
(Purcell et al.
Phylum Echinodermata Klein, 1734 (ex Bruguiere, 1789) Clase Holothuroidea Blainville, 1834 Orden Dendrochirotida
Grube, 1840 Familia Cucumariidae Ludwig, 1894
Echinodermata: Arbacia dufresnei (Blainville, 1825)(*); Asterina sterifer (Mobius, 1859)(*); Dendrochirotida
Apodida can discard the posterior region of the body (Pearse, 1909; Domantay, 1931; Baugh, 1991), whereas autotomy in the Aspido-chirotida and Dendrochirotida
takes the form of auto-evisceration, which is characterized by the extrusion of internal organs through a rupture in the body wall (Emson and Wilkie, 1980; Byrne, 1985, 1986; Dolmatov, 1996, 2009).
After the first cleavage, the fixing processes near the cleavage furrow can be as long as 60 [micro]m This rivals the length of the acrosomes of the sea cucumber Dendrochirotida
thyone (Tilney and Inoue, 1982)--a well-known example of the long actin fibers in gametes.
Evidence for the tubule recruitment model was limited to holothurians of the orders Aspidochirotida and Dendrochirotida.
The order Dendrochirotida is the most speciose in the class Holothuroidea, with 553 of the 1427 species (Smiley, 1994).
Holothurian species may show different patterns of gonad development between individuals and locations, and the use of the same tubule for oocyte growth in more than one reproductive period is seen in species of the orders Dendrochirotida, Apodida, and Elasipoda.