This was immediately presumed to be due to dental fluorosis
as a result of probable excessively high levels of fluoride in the drinking water on the island of Brava.
The UK Government's own study found 48pc of children in Newcastle suffering from dental fluorosis
and in cavalier fashion dismissed it as a cosmetic issue.
shows about twice the incidence of dental fluorosis
(the first, most visible sign of fluoride chronic toxicity) as seen in non-fluoridated Kingston.
occurs during tooth formation and becomes visible during eruption of the teeth.
Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis
in areas with negligible, optimal, and above-optimal fluoride concentrations in drinking water.
Like EPA, the Chicago-based American Dental Association sees dental fluorosis
as "a cosmetic problem, not a health problem," according to Lisa Watson, ADA's director for fluoridation and preventive dentistry.
HHS and EPA reached an understanding of the latest science on fluoride and its effect on tooth decay prevention and the development of dental fluorosis
that may occur with excess fluoride consumption during the tooth forming years, age 8 and younger.
Public Health Service have known that Blacks are disproportionately harmed by fluoride with higher rates of dental fluorosis
(permanent damage to the enamel) rates compared to Whites.
5) Dental fluorosis
also has mild to severe consequences, and animal studies show that there is a genetic component in the pathogenesis of dental fluorosis
and in bone response to fluoride exposure.
One part per million (ppm) of fluoride in drinking water - the so-called optimal level at which dental fluorosis
was ex-pected to be very mild - has been reduced independently by several fluoridating countries, including Hong Kong, Canada and Ireland, because at 1ppm, the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis
Fluoride concentration beyond the prescribed norms causes dental fluorosis
in children and neurological complications," he adds.
Although the use of dentifrices containing fluoride (F) has significantly contributed to a decrease in the prevalence of dental caries in the last decades, they may be a risk factor for the development of dental fluorosis
in young children due to the high rate of F ingestion during tooth brushing [Mascarenhas, 2000].