Dephosphorylation

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Dephosphorylation

 

the splitting-off of a phosphoric acid group from a molecule of a compound containing phosphorus. Some unstable organic phosphorus compounds can undergo spontaneous dephosphorylation, but in living organisms dephosphorylation proceeds primarily with the participation of enzymes. Dephosphorylation brought about by kinases (creatine kinase, glucokinase, and so on) leads to the transfer of the phosphoric acid group to other compounds. Dephosphorylation that is catalyzed by phosphorylases (phosphoamidases) results in the formation of free phosphoric acid. The differentiation among the various types of fermentative dephosphorylation is to some extent arbitrary.

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It acts as a negative regulator of PI3 K by dephosphorylating phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 triphosphate, inactivating downstream effectors, notably Akt (Seront et al.
9,10) The role of PTEN as a tumor suppressor is due to its lipid phosphatase activity, including dephosphorylating phosphatidylinositol-3, 4,5 triphosphate (PIP3), the product of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) function, to form phosphatidylinositol-3, 4 bisphosphate.
The previous studies suggested that Cdc25 homologues control the entry into mitosis through dephosphorylating and activating specific substrate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) to regulate the progression of cell division cycle and transition (Gould and Nurse, 1989; Dunphy and Kumagai, 1991; Gautier et al.