Derbent


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Derbent

(dyĭrbyĕnt`), city (1989 pop. 78,000), SE European Russia, in Dagestan, on the Caspian Sea. It stands on a narrow strip of land that forms a natural pass (the Caspian, or Iron, Gates) between the Caucasian foothills and the sea. Orchards and vineyards are cultivated. Industries include food processing and the production of woolen textiles and bricks. There are oil and natural gas deposits in the area.

Derbent's location has been key to controlling the north–south invasion and trade route along the W Caspian since the 1st millenium B.C. A strategic fortress at the Iron Gates was established by the Persians in the late 5th or early 6th cent. A.D., and remains of the Caucasian Wall (also called Alexander's Wall), built by the Persians in the 6th cent. as a bulwark against northern invaders, survive. The Arabs, who took Derbent in 728, made it a commercial and cultural center. Passing (1220) to the Mongols and later recovered by Persia, Derbent was briefly held (1722) by Peter I of Russia and was annexed to Russia in 1806. Ancient caravansaries and baths and a mosque (8th cent., rebuilt or renovated 14th and 17th cent.) have been preserved.

Derbent

 

(from Persian der, door, and bent, barrier), a city in Dagestan ASSR. Located on the shore of the Caspian Sea; port; railroad station on the Makhachkala-Baku line. Population (1971), 59,000 (14,600 in 1897; 34,100 in 1939; 47,300 in 1959).

The city developed toward the east from a fifth-century fort, which consisted of a citadel (Naryn-kala) placed on a hill and two stone walls, which ran from the citadel to the sea and which blocked the narrow (3 km) passageway between the sea and the mountains of the Caucasus and guarded the territory of the city from the south and north. In the seventh to ninth centuries Derbent was part of the Arabian Caliphate, and in the tenth century it was the center of a feudal principality. In the 13th century it was captured by the Mongols and underwent a period of decline. In the 16th through the early 18th century it was part of Iran; in 1722 it was united with Russia but returned to Iran’s control in 1735 as a result of the Treaty of Gandzha. In 1747 the Derbent Khanate was founded with its center in Derbent; it was occupied by Russian forces in 1796. By the terms of the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813 it finally was joined to Russia. The basic occupations of the people of Derbent are horticulture, viticulture, and fishing. At the end of 1904 a Social Democratic group was founded in Derbent. In February 1917 the Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies was formed. In early December 1917, Soviet power was established in Derbent. From July 1918 to March 1920, the city was in the hands of bourgeois nationalists. On Mar. 25, 1920, the Red Army liberated Derbent.

Industries in Derbent include a plant that manufactures grinding machines; a wool-spinning factory (supplying raw material to rug-weaving factories in the RSFSR, Transcaucasia, and Middle Asia); tinned goods, cognac, and meat combines; wineries; a dairy; clothing factories, a rug-weaving factory; a house-building combine; a brickyard; and a plant producing wall blocks. There are many gardens and vineyards. There are evening technicums that teach machine tool- and die-making and agriculture, pedagogical and medical schools, and a school of rug-making. There is a Lezghian National Theater and a museum of local lore.

Derbent can be divided into two parts with respect to architectural design; the upper part is an old city with narrow winding streets and cul-de-sacs; the lower part is the new city with a network of straight streets and buildings of the second half of the 19th and the 20th century.

The Dzhuma Mosque Complex (eighth to 14th century), a madrasa (15th to 19th century), the Minaret Mosque (14th to 19th century), the Kyrkhliar Mosque (17th century), baths with arches and cupolas (17th to 18th century), and a mausoleum of the khans (18th century) have been preserved. In the citadel there are ruins of the khans’ palace (18th century) and a guard house (19th century, Empire style). During the Soviet period Derbent has been reconstructed; housing, schools, motion picture theaters, clubs, parks, and squares have been built.

REFERENCES

Artamonov, M. I. Drevnii Derbent. In the collection Sovetskaia arkheologiia, vol. 8. Moscow, 1946.
Khan-Magomedov, S. O. Derbent. Moscow, 1958.
References in periodicals archive ?
3D images of the HSS Derbent (main, insets) which were taken off the Bangor University vessel Prince Madoc (left)
In Derbent, warnings were issued from loudspeakers at mosques and mounted on cars dispatched around the city in the mostly Muslim province.
The other four fighters died, and a policeman was injured, in a clash in the centre of Derbent overnight, local investigators said.
It won the war with Iran that followed, and under the peace agreement signed in a Karabakh village of Gulistan, all of Azerbaijani khanates north of the Araks river except Nakhichevan and Yerevan, namely Gyandja, Karabakh, Sheki, Shamakha, Baku, Kuba, and Derbent khanates - were handed over to Russia.
The divers have used it to visit the remains of the Cambank and the Derbent which lie off the north coast of Anglesey.
The club has already visited the wrecks of the Cambank and the Derbent off the north coast of Anglesey.
Request for proposal: Request For Proposals For The Right To Sign The Municipal Contract Of Sale (Purchase) Of Dwelling (Apartment, Residential House, Part Of The House) In The City District Derbent For Orphans And Children Left Without Parental Care And Persons From The Number Of Orphans
Summary: Makhachkala, June 28, 2010, SPA -- Two gunmen were killed in a special operation in the Dagestani city of Derbent.
The most spectacular wreck is that of the tanker Derbent, sank on November 30, 1917, with its cargo of 3,850 tonnes of fuel oil.
Open Competition: Development Of Design And Estimate Documentation: Environmental Rehabilitation Of Lake Aji (Pappas) In Derbent District, Republic Of Dagestan
Summary: Makhachkala, June 13, 2010, SPA -- Two police officers have been killed and one wounded in an attack on an entry post of road police in the Derbent city in the Dagestan republic overnight.