Our team has notched up some important discoveries in the past, including the earliest fish and a remarkable variety of other early deuterostomes
," co-author Degan Shu from Northwest University in China, said in the statement.
A newly described group of primitive soft-bodied deuterostomes
, called vetulocystids, bears similarities to some of the bizarre early echinoderms.
The central nervous system in deuterostomes
lies on the dorsal side, but on the ventral side in protostomes, such as the lobster.
By comparing multiple alignments of the predicted amino acid sequence of BsGPx5 with other deuterostome
GPx, we identified two conserved amino acids of the active sites involved in catalytic activity in other deuterostomes
While it has been variously suggested that deuterostomes
(Nursall, 1962), protostomes (Inglis, 1985), and cnidarians (Hanson, 1977) independently evolved multicellularity, the group most commonly considered to have been derived from a separate protist lineage is the sponges, phylum Porifera (as evidenced by Barnes, 1980, p.
Indeed, a recently published analysis of deuterostome
aquaporins suggests that the Atlantic salmon may express more aquaporin paralogs than any other animal analyzed (Finn et al.
Hemichordates, a small marine phylum integral to hypotheses on deuterostome
and chordate evolution, occur throughout the world's oceans.
The seemingly sporadic distribution of the different SNBP types is the result of this transition having occurred repeatedly in the course of evolution (Kasinsky, 1995) within different groups of both the deuterostome
and protostome branches (Ausio, 1999; Eirin-Lopez et al.
The majority of these articles cover deuterostome
evolution: early development of the enteropneust hemichordate.
The NK cluster in the last common ancestor to protostomes and deuterostomes
probably contained a cluster of nine NK genes: Msx, NKl/slouch, NK3/bagpipe, NK4/tinman, Tlx/cl5, NK7, NK6/hgtx, NK5/Hmx, and Lbxl ladybird genes (Holland 2001, Garcia-Fernandez 2005, Larroux et al.
Although PPAR has not been described outside deuterostomes
, RXR is ubiquitous within metazoans.