Diachrony


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Related to Diachrony: synchrony and diachrony

Diachrony

 

(1) A set of methods of linguistics intended for the analysis of the historical development of a language.

(2) The corresponding area of general linguistics, which is opposed to synchrony. According to F. de Saussure, the subject of diachronic linguistics is the relations that connect elements in a historical sequence that is not perceived by one and the same collective consciousness—the elements replacing one another but not forming a system. The subject of synchronic linguistics is the logical and psychological relations that connect coexisting elements and form a system (how these elements are perceived by one and the same collective consciousness). C. Bally accepted Saussure’s view of synchrony and diachrony. The majority of linguists, while accepting the opposition of synchrony and diachrony itself, reject its absoluteness (the Swiss scholar A. Sechahaye, the Belgian scholar E. Buyssens, E. Coseriu). N. S. Trubetzkoy, R. O. Jakobson, and others, following Baudouin de Courtenay, believe that diachronic study does not exclude the concept of system and that synchronic description cannot entirely exclude the concept of evolution. Most modern linguists share this opinion. From the very beginning, the categorical nature of the opposition of synchrony and diachrony has been alien to Russian linguists, although this opposition is, in itself, justified as a methodological technique.

REFERENCES

O sootnoshenii sinkhronnogo analiza i istoricheskogo izucheniia iazykov. Moscow, 1960.
Saussure, F. de. Kurs obshchei lingvistiki. Moscow, 1933. (Translated from French.)
Coseriu, E. “Sinkhroniia, diakhroniia i istoriia.” In the collection Novoe v linqvistike, issue 3. Moscow, 1963.
Budagov, R. A. Problemy razvitiia iazyka. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. Izbrannye trudy po obshchemu iazykoznaniiu, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1963. (Translated from French.)

A. A. LEONT’EV

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Saussure's most famous concepts, langue and parole, language as a system of signs, and synchrony and diachrony, were already removed from their original formulation by the time they appeared in print, since Saussure never prepared them for publication himself.
In Studies in Typology and Diachrony, William Croft, Keith Denning, and Suzanne Kemmer (eds.
We've recalled Jameson's prolongation of dialectic and Hegel into the preoccupations of structuralism-and-after, and we've seen that Jameson's own introduction here highlights his strategic restoration of temporality, diachrony, history narratively conceived to such structuralist analytic devices as the linear binary and the Greimas square.
Diachrony without Synchrony: Language history and cognition (Papers from the International Symposium at the University of Duisburg, 26-28 March 1990).
Time as the interruption of the other, the event of alterity; for Levinas, time as the subject's non-synchrony with itself in revelation of the other's sheer diachrony, this "slippage of the earth beneath my feet" of an "irrevocable lapse" in which we acknowledge "the impossible synthesis of I and the Other" (God, Death, and Time, 111).
Through this extended diachrony, we see the Southeast as the historical and spiritual geography upon which the entire fabric of Cherokee life and culture was built and against which colonization and removal left their mark.
Consequently, this study shows that the faunal association of different beds of the Maekula Member varies by locality, indicating diachrony of the lowest calcareous beds of Estonia and Ingria (Parnaste 2003).