Acute lupus pneumonitis is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage
, with or without diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, varying degrees of interstitial inflammation, and edema (Figure 9).
Intratracheal infection of domestic cats with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus resulted in mild-to-moderate clinical signs and virus replication throughout the respiratory tract, which caused diffuse alveolar damage
Qualitatively, all alterations characterizing the exudative phase of the histopathologic condition termed diffuse alveolar damage
were identifiable, with intense congestion of the alveolar capillaries, marginated intracapillary neutrophils, necrosis of the alveolar epithelium, interstitial and alveolar edema, hyaline membranes, and invasion of the alveoli by (mostly) mononucleate cells.
9) In the second case, postmortem examination 3 weeks subsequent to receiving silicone injections revealed diffuse alveolar damage
and a foreign body reaction to silicone microemboli.
There are several histologic patterns that may occur, including diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, diffuse alveolar damage
, and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia.
Diffuse alveolar damage
is the classic histologic manifestation of ALI/ARDS.
Conditions Most Commonly Associated With Diffuse Alveolar Damage
Shock Infections (viral, fungal, bacterial, parasitic) Toxic inhalants Acute allergic reactions (eg, hypersensitivity pneumonitis) Drug reactions Systemic collagen vascular diseases Radiation reactions (acute) Alveolar hemorrhage syndromes Idiopathic disease (acute interstitial pneumonia) Table 2.
Diffuse alveolar damage
refers to the pathologic description of lung injury due to a wide variety of causative agents; and the lung tissue generally responds to the injury in a similar manner regardless of the causative agent.
One patient showed associated diffuse alveolar damage
on the open lung biopsy.
1-4] When examined histologically, the lungs of 13% of these lupus patients show a neutrophilic capillaritis, and in another 13% of the lupus patients, the pulmonary pathology consists of diffuse alveolar damage
Hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes develops as a response to alveolar injury in a variety of pulmonary disorders, especially in the setting of inflammation and interstitial fibrosis and during the healing phase of diffuse alveolar damage
The pathologic findings of AIP are characterized by acute and organizing diffuse alveolar damage