congestive heart failure

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Related to Dilated cardiomyopathy: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

congestive heart failure,

inability of the heart to expel sufficient blood to keep pace with the metabolic demands of the body. In the healthy individual the heart can tolerate large increases of workload for a considerable length of time. Cardiac failure results from conditions, e.g., coronary artery diseasecoronary artery disease,
condition that results when the coronary arteries are narrowed or occluded, most commonly by atherosclerotic deposits of fibrous and fatty tissue. Coronary artery disease is the most common underlying cause of cardiovascular disability and death.
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, hypertensive heart disease (see hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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), valvular insufficiency, and rheumatic heart disease, that interfere with the nutrition and oxygenation of the heart muscle itself. Congestive heart failure develops in 50% to 60% of patients with such disorders, and it can be either acute or chronic. If the heart has time to compensate, the heart muscle may become hypertrophic (enlarged); this is caused by structural changes that impede blood flow and impair the ability of the heart to relax. Eventually the great demand for oxygen by the heart muscle cells cannot be met, and cell death results. Either the left or right ventricle alone may fail first, although combined failure is most common and almost always eventually occurs. Left ventricular failure is marked by shortness of breath (dyspnea), often accompanied by cough; pulmonary congestion and edema are evident. Failure of the right ventricle produces systemic edema, reflecting hepatic and visceral engorgement. Diagnosis is often confirmed by echocardiography. Treatment of cardiac failure usually includes dietary changes, restrictions on physical activity, rest, oxygenation, measures to improve myocardial contractility, and correction of arrhythmias. Restriction on sodium intake and the administration of diuretics (the dosages of which depend on the patient's weight) are used to remove excess sodium and water from the body. Digitalisdigitalis
, any of several chemically similar drugs used primarily to increase the force and rate of heart contractions, especially in damaged heart muscle. The effects of the drug were known as early as 1500 B.C.
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 is often prescribed to increase the speed and force of cardiac contractions, and ACE inhibitorsACE inhibitor
or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
, drug used to reduce elevated blood pressure (see hypertension), to treat congestive heart failure, and to alleviate strain on hearts damaged as a result of a heart attack (see infarction).
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 are used to decrease peripheral vascular resistance, making heart pumping easier and more effective.

congestive heart failure

[kən′jes·tiv ′härt ‚fāl·yər]
(medicine)
A state in which circulatory congestion exists as a result of heart failure.
References in periodicals archive ?
Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features that distinguish anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from pulmonary artery from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.
Dilated cardiomyopathy and potentially deadly digoxin.
van Spaendonck-Zwarts offered three lines of evidence in support of the hypothesis that a subset of peripartum cardiomyopathy is actually a first manifestation of familial dilated cardiomyopathy rather than, as previously assumed, a sporadic event.
Systolic and diastolic dysfunction in patients with clinical diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy.
WITH dilated cardiomyopathy, the muscular walls of the heart become stretched or dilated.
4,5) Treatment is often symptomatic, similar to that of nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, and the outcome is dismal.
The incidence in the United States alone of dilated cardiomyopathy is about 200,000 people.
Genetic basis of disorders of cardiovascular development and function; effect of mutations on subsequent organ development leading to such disorders as arrhythmia, cardiac hypertrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and heart failure; developmental aspects of endothelial dysfunction as the basis for vascular disorders: developmental defects in hematopoiesis and the relationship to disorders of the hematopoietic system; genetic basis of angiogenesis, and vasculogenesis; and, the genetic basis, regulation, and role of biological clock mechanisms in development and circadian behavior.
After years of steroid use he developed dilated cardiomyopathy and was put on a waiting list for a heart transplant.
NEW ORLEANS -- Chronic use of methamphetamine can lead to nonischemic, dilated cardiomyopathy and profound left-ventricular dysfunction, according to a study of 53 methamphetamine users seen at a single medical center in California.
Q I HAVE recently been in hospital for five days with dilated cardiomyopathy.
Hikari suffers from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, a condition in which the heart muscles are too weak to effectively pump blood.