Specific diuretics Class Drug Comments Thiazide Chlorothiazide Chlorthalidone Thiazide-like in action, not in structure Hydrochlorothiazide Prototypical drug Hydroflumethiazide Indapamide Thiazide-like in action, not in structure Methyclothiazide Metolazone Thiazide-like in action, not in structure Polythiazide Loop Bumetanide Ethacrynic acid Furosemide Torsemide K+-sparing Amioloride Distal tubule
Among specific topics are lysosomal acidification mechanisms, a new look at electrolyte transport in the distal tubule
, autophagy in pulmonary diseases, and interaction between sperm and egg.
Finally, aldosterone stimulates the distal tubule
of the nephron to "increase" sodium reabsorption to maintain blood volume.
There is excretion of potassium in the distal tubule
and collecting duct, which is controlled by aldosterone.
Clinical and histopathological data suggest that the main mechanisms of phosphate nephropathy are direct tubulotoxic effects of marked hyperphosphatemia and depositions of calcium phosphate crystals in the distal tubule
and the collecting ducts (3).
The reduction in volume stimulates mineralocorticoid activity, which enhances sodium reabsorption and potassium and hydrogen ion secretion in distal tubule
, which enhance bicarbonate generation.
The thiazide diuretics cause massive degenerative changes and cell death in the distal tubule
in rats (16).
Furthermore, the two- to three-fold increase in sodium excretion observed with CVT-124 was achieved with almost no potassium loss, indicating action at the distal tubule
The amount of the water load provided free water clearance in order to suppress the vasopressin effect on water reabsorption at the distal tubule
segments and its effects on [Na.
The distal tubules
contain distinctive, atypical casts that typically appear hypereosinophilic, pale with periodic acid-Schiff stain, and polychromatic (mixed red and blue) and lamellated with Masson trichrome stain.
Renin release is stimulated by hypovolaemia, hypotension or decreased sodium in the filtrate passing through the distal tubules