The new structures contained most of the constituent parts present in human nephrons -- including proximal tubules, distal tubules
, Bowman's capsule and Loop of Henle.
Renal Gal-3 expression was located in proximal and distal tubules
(epithelial cells) but not in the glomeruli.
8,9) Vacuolization is also present in epithelial cells of distal tubules
, Henle loops, and collecting ducts.
Grier and Taylor (1998) created a classification of five classes, such as the ones that were described in this study: regressed (Class I) distribution of abundant spermatogonia cysts in the tubules; early maturation (Class II) beginning of spermatogenesis, cysts in a greater number and sizes; mid maturation (Class III) testis with non-synchronous spermatogenesis, distal tubules
with maximum spermatogenic activity and main tubule with greater spermiation; late maturation (Class IV) abundant spermatozoa in the lumen, maximum spermiation activity and reduction of spermatogenesis; regression (Class V) empty tubular lumen and quick regeneration of germinal epithelium.
The metanephrogenic blastema forms glomeruli, proximal tubules, and distal tubules
Brush border of proximal tubules and lumen of distal tubules
showed normal structure (Figure, 5).
cells clearly stained in the wall of renal proximal and distal tubules
did not express [TUNEL.
12-16 The main sites of deposition of the gold salts are epithelial cells of proximal convulated tubules initially and later on in small amounts in distal tubules
, interstitial tissue and glomeruli.
The gut absorbs magnesium, and the kidneys regulate its excretion via TRPM-6 magnesium channel reabsorption in distal tubules
Pathophysiology of drug-induced nephropathy Level of the nephron Action Drugs Preglomerular Afferent arteriolar Cyclosporine (afferent arteriole) constriction Glomerulus Decreased GFR NSAIDs (prostaglandins) Gold, NSAIDs Glomerulonephritis Penicillamine, cisplatin Proximal tubules Acute tubular necrosis Aminoglycosides, radiocontrast dyes Distal tubules
Renal tubular ACE inhibitors, acidosis type 4 cyclosporine Tubules and ducts Crystalluria Acyclovir, sulphonamide Interstitium Interstitial nephritis Penicillin, allopurinol Renal papilla Papillary necrosis NSAIDs, analgesics Table 2.
When the initial cluster contained up to 50,000 cells distinct tubular structures were observed and when the cluster size exceeded 100,000 cells full kidney-like structures containing a glomerulus, as well as proximal and distal tubules
Mild vacuolar degeneration of the distal tubules
was seen in most of the animals.