a device that is designed for separating liquid mixtures into fractions of different compositions by means of simple distillation. The mixture is brought to a boil in a distillation vat, or still, and the vapors are drawn off to a cooler-condenser. Distilling apparatus are used in the food industry for producing essential oils, aromatic alcohols, and cognac alcohols; they are also used in petroleum refining and wood chemistry. Rectification columns are used for more complete separation of homogeneous liquid mixtures into constituents.
REFERENCESAnoshin, I. M. Teoreticheskie osnovy massoobmennykh protsessov pishchevykh proizvodstv. Moscow, 1970.
Kasatkin, A. G. Osnovnye protsessy i apparaty khimicheskoi tekhnologii, 9th ed. Moscow, 1973.