Thutmose

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Thutmose

 

the name of several Egyptian pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty who reigned during the New Kingdom. The most important were Thutmose I and Thutmose III.

Thutmose I. Ruled from 1538 B.C. to 1525 B.C. Thutmose I pursued an active policy of conquest. During his reign, Egyptian armies conquered Nubia as far as the third cataract of the Nile in the south and advanced to the Euphrates River in the north.

Thutmose III. Ruled circa 1525–1473 B.C. Until 1503, Thutmose III was prevented by his stepmother and co-ruler, Hatshepsut, from exercising real authority. In 1503, after her death, he launched a series of successful military campaigns to restore Egyptian supremacy in Syria and Palestine, which had broken away during Hatshepsut’s regency. In 1492 and 1491 he defeated the Mitanni king and seized his possessions west of the Euphrates. In the south he extended Egypt’s boundaries to the fourth cataract of the Nile, and in the west he forced payment of a tribute from Libya. Thutmose III received gifts from the rulers of Assyria, Babylonia, and the Hittite Empire and from the island of Crete. The territories he conquered were made provinces of Egypt and placed under the rule of viceroys.