Dobruja

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Dobruja

(dō`bro͝ojə, dô`–), Rom. Dobrogea, Bulg. Dobrudza, historic region, c.9,000 sq mi (23,300 sq km), SE Europe, in SE Romania and NE Bulgaria, between the lower Danube River and the Black Sea. The chief cities are ConstanţaConstanţa
, city (1990 pop. 355,402), SE Romania, on the Black Sea. It is the administrative center of Dobruja and a major railroad junction and industrial city, but its chief importance derives from its role as Romania's main seaport.
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, in Romania, and DobrichDobrich
, city (1993 pop. 104,668), NE Bulgaria, a commercial and cultural center of the Dobruja region. Foodstuffs and cotton textiles are produced. The city was called (1913–40) Bazargic under Romanian rule and was renamed (1949–91) Tolbukhin to honor the Soviet
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 and SilistraSilistra
, town (1993 pop. 48,287), NE Bulgaria, a port on the Danube River bordering Romania. Products include textiles, furniture, foodstuffs, and bricks. The Roman Durostorum, it was founded in 29 B.C. and became an important town of Moesia.
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, in Bulgaria. Dobruja comprises a low coastal strip and a hilly and forested inland. Largely agricultural, the region grows cereal crops, has vineyards, and breeds Merino sheep. The largest industrial concentration is in and around Constanţa. Tourism is also economically important, particularly in the Romanian part of Dobruja. The population includes Romanians, Bulgarians, Turks, and Tatars. Dobruja's original inhabitants were conquered in the 6th cent. B.C. by the Greeks, who founded colonies along the Black Sea coast. The region passed to the Scythians in the 5th cent. B.C. and to the Romans (who made it part of Moesia) in the 1st cent. B.C. As part of the Roman Empire and later of the Byzantine, it suffered frequent invasions from the Goths, Huns, Avars, and other tribes. Part of the first Bulgarian empire (681–1018), it was reconquered by the Byzantines. In 1186 it was included in the second Bulgarian empire. Tatar raids were common in the 13th cent. In the 14th cent. the region became an autonomous state under Walachian prince Dobrotich, from whom the name Dobruja derives. Turks conquered the region in 1411, and for the next five centuries it remained a sparsely populated and barely cultivated territory of the Ottoman Empire. In 1878 the Congress of Berlin awarded N Dobruja to Romania and a strip of land later known as S Dobruja to Bulgaria. As a result of the second Balkan War Bulgaria ceded (1913) S Dobruja to Romania. The Treaty of Neuilly, signed in 1919 between Bulgaria and the Allies of World War I, gave all of Dobruja to Romania. In 1940, however, the German-imposed Treaty of Craiova forced Romania to transfer S Dobruja to Bulgaria.

Dobruja

 

or Dobrudja (in Rumanian Dobrogea, in Bulgarian Dobrudzha), a historic region in Europe between the lower course of the Danube River and the Black Sea coast. The northern part of the region, comprising the districts of Tulcea and Constanta, is part of the Socialist Republic of Rumania; the southern part, comprising the cities Tolbukhin and Silistra, is part of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria.

Originally settled by Thracian tribes, Dobruja was occupied by the Scythians in the fifth century B.C. and the Romans in the first century A.D.. Beginning in the third century Dobruja was invaded by Goths, Huns, and other tribes. The Slavs appeared in the region in the early sixth century. The region became part of the first Bulgarian kingdom during its establishment in the seventh century. Controlled by Byzantium in the llth and 12th centuries, Dobruja became part of the second Bulgarian kingdom in the late 12th century. With the decline of this kingdom an independent feudal state arose in Dobruja in the 14th century. Founded by the Bulgarian Balik, it was named Dobruja after his successor, Dobrotich.

In the late 1520’s Dobruja was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. After the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, South Dobruja was ceded to Bulgaria and North Dobruja to Rumania. The Treaty of Bucharest of 1913 ceded South Dobruja to Rumania; this provision remained in effect until 1940, except during the period from 1916 to 1918, when the entire region was occupied by Bulgarian and German troops. The Bulgarian-Rumanian treaty signed in Craiova on Sept. 7, 1940, returned possession of South Dobruja to Bulgaria. Peace treaties between Bulgaria and Rumania reaffirmed the Bulgarian-Rumanian border in Dobruja in 1947.

REFERENCES

Manolov, I. Z. Dobrudzha po p”tia na sotsialisma. Sofia, 1954.
Georgiev, I. Dobrudzha v borbata za svoboda. Sofia, 1962.
Pippidi, D., and D. Berciu. Din istoria Dobrogei. Bucharest, 1965.

F. I. SADCHIKOV

Dobruja

a region of E Europe, between the River Danube and the Black Sea: the north passed to Romania and the south to Bulgaria after the Berlin Congress (1878)
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They fear the use of fracking A could result in water pollution on the entire territory of Dobrudzha -A a region often referred to as the breadbasket of Bulgaria.
The protesters expressed fears that the technology of the exploration activities could result in water pollution on the entire territory of Dobrudzha.
Dobrudzha is among the most fertile and agriculturally used areas by both Romania and Bulgaria, and the method of hydraulic fracturing used to drill for shale gas is known to pose special hazards for the pollution of ground waters with little known chemicals and gas.
Romanians and Bulgarians fear that plans of US energy giant Chevron to explore for shell gas might lead to pollution in the Dobrudzha (Dobrogea) region their share.
The areas that Chevron plans to explore for shale gas are all in the Dobrudzha (Dobrogea) area shared by the two countries, with one of them near Vama Veche, right at the Bulgarian border.
The countryas agro-industry is focused on grain, especially in the Dobrudzha region which has been a European breadbasket for thousands of years.
Dobrich is located in Southern Dobrudzha, a grain-growing region known as "the granary of Bulgaria.
Bulgaria's Minister of Environment and Water has revoked two environmental impact assessments (EIA) issued by a regional inspectorate in the Black Sea city of Varna for the construction of two large wind farms in Dobrudzha.
A potential shale gas extraction in Southern Romania could turn out to be harmful for underground waters in the Bulgarian region of Southern Dobrudzha.
Hristova said that the change introduced on Thursday practically "opened the doors" to the activities of Park Place, which is drilling in the village of Vranino near Kavarna, Direct Petroleum, which is drilling near the village of Deventsi and Rusgekom, which is drilling near the village of Rogozina in Dobrudzha.
Balchik Airport was set up as a civilian airport in 1935 when the region of Southern Dobrudzha was part of Romania after it was occupied as Bulgaria was on the losing side in World War I.
Over the summer, the Bulgarian government granted a concession to US energy giant Chevron to explore for shale gas in a large segment of Dobrudzha, north-eastern Bulgaria.