(Dolgorukovs), members of a Russian princely family. The founder of the family was Mikhail Vsevolodovich Chernigovskii. His offspring, Ivan Andreevich Obolenskii, acquired the nickname Dolgorukii. Well-known statesmen, military leaders, and men of letters came from the family of the princes Dolgorukii.
lurii Alekseevich Dolgorukii. Died May 15, 1682. Boyarand voevoda (military commander). Retainer of Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich.
lurii Alekseevich Dolgorukii achieved a number of victories in the Russo-Polish War of 1654-57. On Aug. 1, 1679, he led the troops operating in the vicinity of Arzamas and Nizhny Novgorod against the detachments of S. T. Razin, whose uprising he harshly suppressed. In 1676 he was appointed guardian of the child Tsar Fedor Alekseevich, who subsequently fell under the influence of Dolgorukii’s son, the boyar Mikhail lur’evich. lurii Alekseevich Dolgorukii and his son were killed during the Moscow Uprising of 1682.
lakov Fedorovich Dolgorukii. Born 1639, in Moscow; died June 24 (July 5), 1720, in St. Petersburg. An associate of Peter I from the period of the struggle for power against the Tsarevna Sofia Alekseevna, he participated in the Azov campaigns of 1695-96.
After the capture of Azov, lakov Fedorovich Dolgorukii was in charge of the defense of the southern border of the Russian state against Turkey. In 1700 he headed the military-administrative and military-judicial section of the newly created regular army. During the same year he was captured by the Swedes at Narva, and he remained a prisoner for ten years. When he returned to Russia (1711), he became a senator and was made head of the Commissariat of War. In 1717 he was appointed president of the Auditing Collegium.
Grigorii Fedorovich Dolgorukii. Born 1656; died Aug. 15 (26), 1723, in St. Petersburg. Diplomat.
In 1700, Grigorii Fedorovich Dolgorukii was sent by Peter I on a mission to the Polish king Augustus II. He was ambassador to Poland, with brief interruptions, from 1701 to 1721. A treaty of alliance with Poland (1701) and the Narva Alliance (1704) were concluded with Dolgorukii’s assistance. He skillfully kept Poland in the anti-Swedish Northern Alliance. Dolgorukii participated in the battle of Poltava in 1709. In 1717 he settled the conflict between Augustus II and the supporters of the former Polish king and protege of Charles XII, Stanislas Leszczynski. He supported groups of the Polish nobility that were oriented toward Russia.
Vasilii Vladimirovich Dolgorukii. Born January 1667; died Feb. 11 (22), 1746, in St. Petersburg. Field marshal (1728). Son of a boyar. Stol’nik (attendant at the tsar’s court) from 1685.
In 1700, Vasilii Vladimirovich Dolgorukii joined the Preobrazhenskii Regiment. He fought in the Northern War of 1700-21, and in 1708 he directed the suppression of the Bulavin Uprising. He commanded the reserve cavalry at the battle of Poltava. Dolgorukii served under the Ukrainian hetmans I. S. Mazepa (1706-07) and I. I. Skoropadskii (from 1709). In 1715 he was chairman of a commission to investigate embezzlement, and he uncovered the abuses of A. D. Menshikov. During 1716-17 he accompanied Peter I on his trip abroad. In 1718 he was deprived of all ranks and banished in connection with the case of Tsarevich Aleksei. Returning from exile in 1724, he was promoted to the rank of colonel. In 1726, Dolgorukii was general in chief and commander of the forces in the Caucasus.
With the rise of the Dolgorukiis under Peter II, Vasilii Vladimirovich Dolgorukii was appointed to the Supreme Privy Council. When Ann Ivanovna took the throne, he did not support the other members of the council in their demand for the limitation of the autocracy. In 1731 he was arrested and imprisoned in Shlissel’burg Fortress. Banished to Ivangorod in 1737, in 1739 he was cloistered in the Solovki Monastery. In 1741 all his rights and titles were restored and he was appointed president of the Collegium of War.
Vasilii Lukich Dolgorukii. Born about 1670; died Nov. 8 (19), 1739, in Novgorod. Diplomat.
In 1687, Vasilii Lukich Dolgorukii was a member of the embassy of his uncle, la. F. Dolgorukii, in Paris. He was ambassador to Poland in 1706 and ambassador to Denmark from 1707 to 1720. In 1709, after the battle of Poltava, he reestablished the alliance with Denmark, despite the opposition of Great Britain and Holland. He was an envoy to Paris from 1721 to 1722. Dolgorukii was appointed minister plenipotentiary to Warsaw in 1724 and, after the death of Peter I, to Sweden, in order to counteract the influence of Great Britain there. After returning to Russia (1727), he became a member of the Supreme Privy Council. An active participant in the so-called conspiracy of the verkhovniki (members of the Supreme Privy Council), he was banished to Solovki Monastery in 1730. In 1739 he was executed for his role in the Dolgorukii affair.
REFERENCESNikiforov, L. A. Russko-angliiskie otnosheniia pri Petre I. [Moscow] 1950.
Nikiforov, L. A. Vneshniaia politika Rossii v poslednie gody Severnot voiny: Nishtadtskii mir. Moscow, 1959.
lurii Vladimirovich Dolgorukii. Born in 1740; died Nov. 8 (20), 1830, in Moscow. Author of memoirs.
During the Seven Years’ War of 1756-63 and the two Russo-Turkish wars (1768-74 and 1787-91), lurii Vladimirovich Dolgorukii was a member of the army in the field, participating in the battle of Gross-Jagersdorf and the battle of Cesme (1770). He led an unsuccessful expedition to Montenegro during the first Russo-Turkish war.
REFERENCE“Avtobiografiia Dolgorukova.” In Skazanie o rode kniazei Dolgorukovykh. St. Petersburg, 1840.
Ivan Mikhailovich Dolgorukii. Born Apr. 7 (18), 1764, in Moscow; died Dec. 4 (16), 1823, in Moscow. Writer. Author of memoirs.
Vice-governor of Penza from 1791 to 1797 and governor of Vladimir from 1802 to 1812, Ivan Mikhailovich Dolgorukii wrote lyric poetry, comedies, and memoir-like works. His reminiscences, written in the form of annual notes, characterized the life and culture and the upbringing and education of children of the great nobility.
WORKSSoch., vols. 1-2. Moscow, 1849.
REFERENCESDmitriev, M. A. Kn. L M. Dolgorukii i ego sochineniia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1863.
Istoriia russkoi literatury XIX v.
Bibliografich. ukazatel. Moscow-Leningrad, 1962.
Vasilii Andreevich Dolgorukii. Born Feb. 24 (Mar. 7), 1804; died Jan. 5 (17), 1868, in St. Petersburg. General-adjutant (from 1845). Large landlord.
Vasilii Andreevich Dolgorukii participated in the suppression of the Polish Uprising of 1830-31. From 1838 to 1841 he was a member of the retinue of the heir to the throne, the future emperor Alexander II. He was a member of the commission investigating the case of the Petrashevskii circle. Minister of war from 1853 to 1856 and a member of the State Council from 1853, in June 1856, Dolgorukii replaced A. F. Orlov as chief of the gendarmes and head of the Third Section. He was dismissed in April 1866, after D. V. Karakozov’s attempt on the life of Alexander II. In the Secret Committee and Main Committee on the Peasant Question he was an extreme proponent of serfdom.