Pedro I

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Pedro I

(Dom Pedro de Alcântara) (pā`drō), 1798–1834, first emperor of Brazil (1822–31); son of John VIJohn VI,
1769–1826, king of Portugal (1816–26), son of Maria I and Peter III. When his mother became insane, John assumed the reins of government (1792), although he did not formally become regent until 1799.
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 of Portugal. Dom Pedro was a child when the Portuguese royal family, fleeing from Napoleon's conquering French army, left Portugal for Brazil. He grew up in Rio de Janeiro, and when King John returned (1821) to Portugal, Dom Pedro remained as regent in Brazil. Attempts by the Portuguese to reduce the Brazilian colony once again to subordinate status sparked opposition. Heeding his Brazilian advisers, especially José BonifácioBonifácio, José
, 1763–1838, Brazilian statesman and scientist. He studied in Europe and gained international fame as a geologist before returning (1819) to Brazil.
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, Pedro defied the government in Lisbon. On Sept. 7, 1822, he issued the Grito do Ipiranga, which declared Brazil a separate empire. In 1824, he granted Brazil its first constitution. The United States recognized the new empire the same year, and the Portuguese soon followed. Brazilian independence was thus won without the bloodshed that marked the Spanish-American independence movements. Dom Pedro's popularity, however, was soon undermined by his humiliating war with Argentina, which cost Brazil the Cisplatine Province (Uruguay), by his notorious private life, and by his preoccupation with Portuguese affairs. When John VI died in 1826, Dom Pedro was recognized as Peter IV of Portugal. However, he conceded the Portuguese crown to his daughter, Maria II, on condition that she marry her uncle Dom Miguel, and that Dom Miguel accept a constitutional charter for Portugal. Dom Miguel agreed, but in 1828 seized the rule for himself and set up an absolute regime. Meanwhile, the problems in Brazil led Dom Pedro to abdicate (1831) in favor of his son, Pedro II. He left for Europe, joined the Portuguese liberals entrenched in the Azores, and proceeded to Oporto in 1832, with a small fleet. In the Miguelist Wars, an English sea force fighting for Dom Pedro and Maria II defeated the Miguelist fleet, and Maria was restored to the throne. Dom Pedro died in the same year.


See N. Macaulay, Dom Pedro: The Struggle for Liberty in Brazil and Portugal (1798–1834) (1986); G. Freyre, Order and Progress: Brazil from Monarchy to Republic (1970, repr. 1986).

References in periodicals archive ?
NEED TO KNOW Peter Sharkey | TRAVELled with easyJet to Lisbon and stayed at the Dom Pedro Palace Hotel.
Dom Pedro Golf Resort is located in Vilamoura, just minutes from Europe's best golf courses and beaches and Vilamoura's Marina and Casino.
Brazilian astronomy existed officially on a small scale from 1827, when the first Emperor, Dom Pedro I, founded what became the National Observatory in Rio.
The charming Dom Pedro Golf is noted for its extensive range of sports and entertainment facilities.
On 22 April, 1979, in the Cathedral da Se in Sao Paulo, the first celebration of a mass entitled "The Mass of the Land Without Evil" (Missa Da Terra sem Males) took place, using native music drawn from various regions of South America and performed using native instruments like quena, tarkat-anat, bombo leguero, charango, zikuri or zampona, cultrum, pinkuko; the mass is primarily the work of one of the most famous of Brazil's bishops, Dom Pedro Casaldaliga, and a Spanish-Catalan Pedro Tierra, who has the nickname of Hamilton Pereira da Silva and who was one of the victims of repression in Brazil.
The rebels, headed by the Diputacio, offered the crown in turn to King Enrique IV of Castile, to Dom Pedro the Constable of Portugal, and to Rene of Anjou.
It wasn't until 1824 that the first official expedition to the summit was undertaken, led by none other than Emperor Dom Pedro I.
This analysis is possible, not through the route of social history, but through the route of administrative history, given the centralization of political and administrative power in the hands of the Council of State, the advisory body of the Emperors, Dom Pedro I, Dom Pedro II, and the Regencies of Princess Isabel.
Fly out from December 26 to January 2, staying at the four star Dom Pedro Baia, near Machico, the original capital of Madeira.
Dom Pedro I became emperor of Brazil at its independence in 1922, and ruled with a Conservative alliance to maintain order in the midst of the Afro-Brazilian population, African slaves, the example of the Haitian revolution, and instability in neighboring Spanish colonies.
Projects to hydrate the northeast--many variants of the Silo Francisco plan--have existed for centuries, including a proposal in the 1840s by Dom Pedro II, a Brazilian monarch, who vowed, unsuccessfully, to do so even if it meant selling the crown jewels.
The French were particularly prominent, having been originally invited by the monarch Dom Pedro VI in 1816 to establish an artistic mission which ultimately resulted in the Academi Imperial de Belas Artes.