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A condition in which each allele of a heterozygous pair expresses itself fully, as in human blood group AB individuals.



expression in heterozygotes of characters typical of both forms (alleles) of the gene.

Codominance is found, for example, in studying blood serum proteins (transferrins). In individuals heterozygous for the alleles controlling the biosynthesis of transferrin, both forms of this protein are present in the blood at the same time, and each form is found separately in the corresponding homozygote. The same patterns of heredity are also found in other proteins, including almost all the enzymes. The degree of activity of each of the allelic genes may be different. The products synthesized under the control of two alleles of the same gene may independently influence the expression of a character or they may interact with each other. The existence of codominance is useful in studying the genetic structure of populations without making crossings or studying pedigrees; instead, modern biochemical and immunological methods of separating proteins are used. Codominance in erythrocytic antigens facilitates the identification of blood groups in man and animals.


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For any two distribution functions F and G the following stochastic dominance relationships are defined.
As Marler (1955b) found with chaffinches, we were sometimes able to shift the birds' dominance relationships by color manipulations.
Three years later she presented work on the role of polymorphism in dominance relationships of White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis).
Interspecific dominance relationships often are affected by the number of individuals present from each species (i.