Dominant


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Related to Dominant: dominant gene

dominant

1. Genetics
a. (of an allele) producing the same phenotype in the organism irrespective of whether the allele of the same gene is identical or dissimilar
b. (of a character) controlled by such a gene
2. Music of or relating to the fifth degree of a scale
3. Ecology (of a plant or animal species within a community) more prevalent than any other species and determining the appearance and composition of the community
4. Genetics
a. a dominant allele or character
b. an organism having such an allele or character
5. Music
a. the fifth degree of a scale and the second in importance after the tonic
b. a key or chord based on this
6. Ecology a dominant plant or animal in a community

Dominant

 

(in architecture), the major element in the composition of an ensemble. It is usually a tall building, for example, the main building of Moscow State University on Lenin Hills in Moscow, or the vertical part of one of the buildings, such as the tower and spire of the Admiralty Building in Leningrad. Rising above the surrounding structures, the dominant marks the focal point in the spatial arrangement of the ensemble.


Dominant

 

(in music), a harmonic function of a major or minor scale exhibiting a strong tendency toward the tonic. The fifth degree of the scale is the basis of the dominant chord and is itself called the dominant. Chords built on the seventh and third degrees of the scale also fulfill the function of a dominant. The tendency of dominant chords toward the tonic is related to the presence of the leading tone in the chords. The resolution of the dominant into the tonic establishes the tonality with greatest certainty. The tonality whose tonic is the basic dominant is called dominant.


Dominant

 

in physiology, a focus of excitation in the central nervous system that temporarily determines the nature of the body’s response to external and internal stimulation.

The dominant nerve center (or group of centers) is highly excitable and capable of maintaining this elevated excitability for a long time—even after the initial stimulus is no longer active. While summing the relatively weak stimuli of other centers, the dominant simultaneously exerts an inhibitory effect on them. Under natural conditions the dominant is formed under the influence of reflex excitation or after certain hormones have acted on the nerve centers. A dominant can be created experimentally by applying a weak electric current or certain drugs directly to the nerve centers. The dominance of some nerve centers over others was first described by N. E. Vvedenskii in 1881.

In elucidating the mechanisms of formation of conditioned reflexes, I. P. Pavlov pointed out that the sustained elevation of excitability of various regions of the cerebral cortex largely determines the dynamics of higher nervous activity both in pathology and in health. A. A. Ukhtomskii formulated the main elements of the theory of the dominant as a general principle of function of nerve centers on the basis of experiments that he and his co-workers performed between 1911 and 1923. The function of a dominant is made apparent in the readiness of an organ to function and maintain its functional state. The dominant in the higher brain centers is the physiological basis of a number of mental phenomena, such as attention.

REFERENCES

Ukhtomskii, A. A. Dominanta. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966.
Mekhaniimy dominanty. Leningrad, 1967. (Symposium materials.)

N. G. ALEKSEEV and M. IU. UL’IANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
One female dominant stated, "Submissives can get really possessive and crazy.
Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to explore the differences in muscle latency and proprioceptive ability between the non-dominant and dominant ankles of healthy sedentary individuals.
The CCI order, dated February 5 but released on Tuesday, states, " At the outset, it may be noted that the Commission has already received many informations where opposite party ( DLF Universal) has been prima facie found to be dominant in market for provision of services for development of residential apartments in the territory of Gurgaon.
It was further established that the left hemisphere is dominant for language in 90 per cent of cases, as it is for motor behaviour.
Whether a male is dominant or subordinate is determined the winter before they reach sexual maturity, when brothers come together and battle for dominance.
The only person you should submit to is the Dominant you are associated with.
Our approach to this problem is direct and begins with the fact that, to be the dominant actor in a nation's legislature, a party must obtain support from a majority of its voting population.
Jack Weaver's stance, with the body bladed somewhat and both elbows bent, brings the gun strongly toward the dominant eye side, and you need this much head movement to correct.
The three-year varsity starter is a dominant attacker with one of the hardest hits to defend.
The shot's efficacy of 75 percent is surprisingly high, given that it wasn't designed to target that year's dominant flu strain, adds Monto, who has been a paid consultant for MedImmune, the maker of the inhaled vaccine.
We found consistent differences in control strategies used by both the dominant and nondominant hemisphere/ limb systems.
SAN DIEGO -- Scanning just the dominant forearm of patients with a history of nondominant wrist fracture can miss cases of osteoporosis.