Dominant


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Related to Dominant: dominant gene

dominant

1. Genetics
a. (of an allele) producing the same phenotype in the organism irrespective of whether the allele of the same gene is identical or dissimilar
b. (of a character) controlled by such a gene
2. Music of or relating to the fifth degree of a scale
3. Ecology (of a plant or animal species within a community) more prevalent than any other species and determining the appearance and composition of the community
4. Genetics
a. a dominant allele or character
b. an organism having such an allele or character
5. Music
a. the fifth degree of a scale and the second in importance after the tonic
b. a key or chord based on this
6. Ecology a dominant plant or animal in a community

Dominant

 

(in architecture), the major element in the composition of an ensemble. It is usually a tall building, for example, the main building of Moscow State University on Lenin Hills in Moscow, or the vertical part of one of the buildings, such as the tower and spire of the Admiralty Building in Leningrad. Rising above the surrounding structures, the dominant marks the focal point in the spatial arrangement of the ensemble.


Dominant

 

(in music), a harmonic function of a major or minor scale exhibiting a strong tendency toward the tonic. The fifth degree of the scale is the basis of the dominant chord and is itself called the dominant. Chords built on the seventh and third degrees of the scale also fulfill the function of a dominant. The tendency of dominant chords toward the tonic is related to the presence of the leading tone in the chords. The resolution of the dominant into the tonic establishes the tonality with greatest certainty. The tonality whose tonic is the basic dominant is called dominant.


Dominant

 

in physiology, a focus of excitation in the central nervous system that temporarily determines the nature of the body’s response to external and internal stimulation.

The dominant nerve center (or group of centers) is highly excitable and capable of maintaining this elevated excitability for a long time—even after the initial stimulus is no longer active. While summing the relatively weak stimuli of other centers, the dominant simultaneously exerts an inhibitory effect on them. Under natural conditions the dominant is formed under the influence of reflex excitation or after certain hormones have acted on the nerve centers. A dominant can be created experimentally by applying a weak electric current or certain drugs directly to the nerve centers. The dominance of some nerve centers over others was first described by N. E. Vvedenskii in 1881.

In elucidating the mechanisms of formation of conditioned reflexes, I. P. Pavlov pointed out that the sustained elevation of excitability of various regions of the cerebral cortex largely determines the dynamics of higher nervous activity both in pathology and in health. A. A. Ukhtomskii formulated the main elements of the theory of the dominant as a general principle of function of nerve centers on the basis of experiments that he and his co-workers performed between 1911 and 1923. The function of a dominant is made apparent in the readiness of an organ to function and maintain its functional state. The dominant in the higher brain centers is the physiological basis of a number of mental phenomena, such as attention.

REFERENCES

Ukhtomskii, A. A. Dominanta. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966.
Mekhaniimy dominanty. Leningrad, 1967. (Symposium materials.)

N. G. ALEKSEEV and M. IU. UL’IANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Samples were selected by taking 30 dominant trees of Perhutani's teak plus with a good quality from clonal seed orchard in each compartment which was aged around 6 to 13 years.
Males were found to be faster than females while performing the test using both dominant and non-dominant hand with eyes open and blind folded and the values were found to be highly significant.
When a submissive automatically takes something they've been told and they implement it into the relationship/lifestyle, that is impressive to a Dominant and we want to reward them for having done so.
After the intruder was removed and the former dominants and former subordinates were allowed to reestablish their relationships, rank reversals were observed in half of the trials; that is, half of the original dominant animals became new subordinates and half of the original subordinates, new dominants.
For the purpose of this article, we will discuss whether or not the AK Party and Turkey have, respectively, evolved into a dominant party and a dominant-party system in light of the AK party's election victories since 2002.
The Comelec said a political party duly registered with the commission may file a verified petition for accreditation for determination of dominant majority party, the dominant minority party, the 10 major national parties and the two major local parties.
The informant has alleged that owing to its dominant position, OP has imposed hidden costs and onerous conditions on the buyers by way of an ' agreement' which is extremely one- sided and biased towards OP.
4] This proposed link between brain function, intellectual ability and dominant preference raises a question of particular interest: Does dominant preference systematically relate to individual differences in school readiness?
Three types of language lateralization were extablished from the images obtained; 'typical' with a dominant left hemisphere (present in 88% of right-handers and 78% of left-handers), 'ambilateral' without a clearly dominant hemisphere (present in 12% of right-handers and 15% of left-handers), and 'strongly atypical' with a dominant right hemisphere (present only in 7% of left-handers).
The 'winner' adopts the dominant form, while the other brothers become subordinate - assisting their brother in mating, but not siring offspring themselves.
The oldest, first-owned and dominant, is a female named Nika.