John of Austria

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John of Austria
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John of Austria,

1545–78, Spanish admiral and general; illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. He was acknowledged in his father's will and was recognized by his half-brother, Philip II of Spain. In 1569 he fought against the Morisco rebels in Granada. As admiral of the Holy League, formed against the Ottoman Empire by Pope Pius V, Spain, and Venice, he won the famous naval victory of LepantoLepanto, battle of
, Oct. 7, 1571, naval battle between the Christians and Ottomans fought in the strait between the gulfs of Pátrai and Corinth, off Lepanto (Návpaktos), Greece. The fleet of the Holy League commanded by John of Austria (d.
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 (1571). He later took Tunis and served as governor-general in Italy. In 1576 he was sent by Philip as governor-general to the Netherlands, then in rebellion against Spain under the leadership of William the SilentWilliam the Silent
or William of Orange
(William I, prince of Orange), 1533–84, Dutch statesman, principal founder of Dutch independence. Early Life
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. John was forced to make concessions but then resumed hostilities. His victorious general, Alessandro FarneseFarnese, Alessandro
, 1545–92, duke of Parma and Piacenza (1586–92), general and diplomat in the service of Philip II of Spain. He was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese and Margaret of Parma and thus a nephew of Philip II and of John of Austria, under whom he
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, succeeded him as governor-general on his death.

Bibliography

See Sir William Stirling-Maxwell, Don John of Austria (1883).


John of Austria,

1629–79, Spanish general and statesman; illegitimate son of Philip IV. He helped put down Masaniello's revolt (1647) in Naples, was viceroy of Sicily (1648–51), and fought (1651–52) against the rebels in Catalonia. In 1656, while France was at war with Spain (see FrondeFronde
, 1648–53, series of outbreaks during the minority of King Louis XIV, caused by the efforts of the Parlement of Paris (the chief judiciary body) to limit the growing authority of the crown; by the personal ambitions of discontented nobles; and by the grievances of
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), he was appointed governor of the Spanish Netherlands. He was defeated by Turenne at the battle of the DunesDunes, Battle of the,
1658, decisive engagement fought near Dunkirk in the struggle between France and Spain that had resulted from Spanish intervention in the Fronde. The Spanish under the command of Don John of Austria and Louis II de Condé lost to the French and their
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 (1658) and recalled. His campaign (1661–64) for the reconquest of Portugal also failed. During the minority of Charles IICharles II,
1661–1700, king of Spain, Naples, and Sicily (1665–1700), son and successor of Philip IV. The last of the Spanish Hapsburgs, he was physically crippled and mentally retarded.
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, he overthrew the regency of the queen-mother Mariana and seized power (1677). His government lost Franche-Comté to France by the peace of Nijmegen (1678).

John of Austria

called Don John. 1547--78, Spanish general: defeated the Turks at Lepanto (1571)